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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 2: (a) Autosomal dominant inheritance. III 2 is the proband. It is a three generation pedigree. Members of all three generations are involved. Males (II4, 5 and III 1, 2) and females (I2 and III4) are affected. II2 represents incomplete penetrance as he has inherited the gene but is not affected. (b) Autosomal recessive inheritance. IV5 is the proband. consanguinity is shown between I1 and I2, II5 and II6 and III3 and III4. IV 2 and IV 5 are affected. (A boy and girl).II 5 is affected and III 6, 7 and 8 are affected indicating that the mother is a carrier resulting in a pseudo-autosomal dominant pattern. (c) X-linked recessive inheritance : III 5 is the proband. III 2 is also affected. Only boys are affected. I 4 is an obligate carrier as she has two affected sons. There is no male to male transmission. (d) X-linked dominant inheritance. III 5 is the proband. Only females affected. There are multiple male fetal losses. There is no male-to male-transmission. There can be normal male and female children (II4, II 5, III4, and III6, born to an affected mother)

Figure 2: (a) Autosomal dominant inheritance. III 2 is the proband. It is a three generation pedigree. Members of all three generations are involved. Males (II4, 5 and III 1, 2) and females (I2 and III4) are affected. II2 represents incomplete penetrance as he has inherited the gene but is not affected. (b) Autosomal recessive inheritance. IV5 is the proband. consanguinity is shown between I1 and I2, II5 and II6 and III3 and III4. IV 2 and IV 5 are affected. (A boy and girl).II 5 is affected and III 6, 7 and 8 are affected indicating that the mother is a carrier resulting in a pseudo-autosomal dominant pattern. (c) X-linked recessive inheritance : III 5 is the proband. III 2 is also affected. Only boys are affected. I 4 is an obligate carrier as she has two affected sons. There is no male to male transmission. (d) X-linked dominant inheritance. III 5 is the proband. Only females affected. There are multiple male fetal losses. There is no male-to male-transmission. There can be normal male and female children (II4, II 5, III4, and III6, born to an affected mother)