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   2013| May-August  | Volume 6 | Issue 2  
    Online since August 19, 2013

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Optic nerve hypoplasia
Savleen Kaur, Sparshi Jain, Harsimrat B. S. Sodhi, Anju Rastogi, Kamlesh
May-August 2013, 6(2):77-82
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.116622  PMID:24082663
Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is a congenital anomaly of the optic disc that might result in moderate to severe vision loss in children. With a vast number of cases now being reported, the rarity of ONH is obviously now refuted. The major aspects of ophthalmic evaluation of an infant with possible ONH are visual assessment, fundus examination, and visual electrophysiology. Characteristically, the disc is small, there is a peripapillary double-ring sign, vascular tortuosity, and thinning of the nerve fiber layer. A patient with ONH should be assessed for presence of neurologic, radiologic, and endocrine associations. There may be maternal associations like premature births, fetal alcohol syndrome, maternal diabetes. Systemic associations in the child include endocrine abnormalities, developmental delay, cerebral palsy, and seizures. Besides the hypoplastic optic nerve and chiasm, neuroimaging shows abnormalities in ventricles or white- or gray-matter development, septo-optic dysplasia, hydrocephalus, and corpus callosum abnormalities. There is a greater incidence of clinical neurologic abnormalities in patients with bilateral ONH (65%) than patients with unilateral ONH. We present a review on the available literature on the same to urge caution in our clinical practice when dealing with patients with ONH. Fundus photography, ocular coherence tomography, visual field testing, color vision evaluation, neuroimaging, endocrinology consultation with or without genetic testing are helpful in the diagnosis and management of ONH. (Method of search: MEDLINE, PUBMED).
  9,438 806 1
Ocular chemical injuries and their management
Parul Singh, Manoj Tyagi, Yogesh Kumar, KK Gupta, PD Sharma
May-August 2013, 6(2):83-86
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.116624  PMID:24082664
Chemical burns represent potentially blinding ocular injuries and constitute a true ocular emergency requiring immediate assessment and initiation of treatment. The majority of victims are young and exposure occurs at home, work place and in association with criminal assaults. Alkali injuries occur more frequently than acid injuries. Chemical injuries of the eye produce extensive damage to the ocular surface epithelium, cornea, anterior segment and limbal stem cells resulting in permanent unilateral or bilateral visual impairment. Emergency management if appropriate may be single most important factor in determining visual outcome. This article reviews the emergency management and newer techniques to improve the prognosis of patients with chemical injuries.
  8,298 900 2
The eye and visual system in pregnancy, what to expect? An in-depth review
Khawla Abu Samra
May-August 2013, 6(2):87-91
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.116626  PMID:24082665
Pregnancy represents a real challenge to all body systems. Physiological changes can involve any of the body organs including the eye and visual system. The ocular effect of pregnancy involves a wide spectrum of physiologic and pathologic changes. The latter might be presenting for the first time during pregnancy such as corneal melting and corneal ectasia, or an already existing ocular pathologies that are modified by pregnancy such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. In addition, pregnancy can affect vision through systemic disease that are either specific to the pregnant state itself such as the pre-eclampsia/eclampsia and Sheehan's syndrome, or systemic diseases that occur more frequently in relation to pregnancy such as Graves' disease, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, anti-phospholipid syndrome, and disseminated intravascular coagulation.
  4,381 591 2
American joint committee on cancer staging of uveal melanoma
Phoebe L Mellen, Spenser J Morton, Carol L Shields
May-August 2013, 6(2):116-118
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.116652  PMID:24082672
In January 2010, the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) updated its staging criteria for uveal melanoma. Here, we discuss the staging classifications and evaluate an interesting case to demonstrate. The development of a uniform means of staging cancer, such as defined by the AJCC, is critical for information sharing among the research community.
  4,108 258 -
Posterior sub-Tenon's triamcinolone in choroidal granuloma due to probable ocular sarcoidosis
Vinod Kumar, Tinu Gupta, Shivani Jain, Bhuvan Chanana
May-August 2013, 6(2):127-128
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.116660  PMID:24082675
  4,127 162 -
A comparative study of two methods of optic disc evaluation in patients of glaucoma
Anuradha Chandra, Arun Kumar Bandyopadhyay, Gautam Bhaduri
May-August 2013, 6(2):103-107
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.116643  PMID:24082669
Introduction: Glaucoma is a progressive disorder and requires serial evaluation in order to monitor disease progression and optimize therapy. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between each of cup/disc (C/D) ratio and the disc damage likelihood scale (DDLS) with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and global indices in Humphrey field analyzer II (HFA II). Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma were examined to grade DDLS score and C/D ratio. The average (avg) RNFL was obtained using the Fast RNFL protocol on optical coherence tomography (OCT) (4.0.2 Carl Zeiss). HFA II Swedish Interactive Threshold Algorithm Standard 24-2 visual fields were obtained within 1 month of clinical examination. The correlation of C/D ratio with avg RNFL thickness, Mean deviation and Pattern standard deviation was calculated by Pearson correlation coefficient (r). Similar coefficients were obtained for DDLS. Results: The P value for the difference in the r between C/D ratio with RNFL (−0.628) and DDLS with RNFL (−0.8369) was significant (P < 0.01) when correlation of C/D, DDLS with RNFL was considered. Conclusion: The DDLS shows stronger correlation with structural changes in OCT than C/D ratio. The disc diameter and rim width increases the value of clinical optic disc examination.
  3,994 273 -
Transcanalicular endoscope combined laser-assisted dacryocystorhinostomy
Virendra K Pal, Ajai Agrawal, Suwarna Suman, Vir B Pratap
May-August 2013, 6(2):99-102
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.116641  PMID:24082668
Aims: In this study, we have tried to assess the success rate and difficulties that we came across while performing the transcanalicular endoscope combined laser-assisted dacryocystorhinostomy (T-ECLAD). Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 60 patients suffering from nasolacrimal duct obstruction confirmed by preoperative syringing was carried out at the Regional Institute of Ophthalmology. T-ECLAD is a new minimally invasive dacryocystorhinostomy procedure, which is performed by diode laser (980 nm diode laser with power of 10 watts) through lacrimal canaliculi with the help of a cannula and fiber optic cable. The interior of the nasal cavity was visualized with the help of the nasal endoscope on a monitor. Success of procedure was assessed by patency of the lacrimal drainage system on irrigation. Results: We performed 56 successive T-ECLAD. The average procedure time was 10 min, and on an average 235 Joules of laser energy was needed. We observed a patent nasolacrimal duct on irrigation in 39 out of 56 treated eyes. 1 patient had partial, 5 patients had blocked irrigation, and 10 patients did not return for follow up. This yields a success rate of 69.6% (if we exclude patients who did not return for follow up) with an average follow-up period of 6 months. Conclusions: The 980-nm T-ECLAD is a new contribution to the field of lacrimal surgery. It is a minimally invasive and quick procedure.
  3,597 260 -
Asymmetric presentations of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy
Tanie Natung, Pradeep Venkatesh, Lanalyn Thangkhiew, Jacqueline Syiem
May-August 2013, 6(2):129-130
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.116661  PMID:24082676
  3,608 221 -
Papillary adenocarcinoma of ciliary body
Anup P Bhandari, Sunil Y Swami, Rasika U Gadkari
May-August 2013, 6(2):132-134
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.116663  PMID:24082678
  3,556 146 -
Correlation of visual functions with macular thickness in primary open angle glaucoma
Siddharth Agrawal, Vinita Singh, Shashi Kumar Bhasker, Bhumika Sharma
May-August 2013, 6(2):96-98
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.116640  PMID:24082667
Aim: The aim of this study was to establish a correlation between macular thickness on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and 2 visual functions (visual acuity and contrast sensitivity [CS]) in established cases of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Materials and Methods: A total of 50 consecutive patients of established POAG between 40 years and 70 years of age attending the glaucoma clinic of a tertiary care eye center in North India were enrolled for this cross-sectional study. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), CS and macular thickness by spectral-domain-OCT (Cirrus HD-OCT, CarlZeiss, Germany) were evaluated. Statistical Analysis: The groups were compared together by one factor analysis of variance and the significance of mean difference between the groups was done by Newman-Keuls test. Results: Newman-Keuls test revealed a direct relationship of macular thickness to BCVA and CS (P < 0.05). Conclusion: BCVA and CS are directly related to the macular thickness on OCT.
  3,136 229 -
A vision for optometry in Oman
JF Thomas
May-August 2013, 6(2):75-76
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.116617  PMID:24082662
  2,754 267 -
Walker Warburg syndrome associated with microphthalmos and megalophthalmos: A rare combination
Pallavi Agrawal, Chaitali Patel, Naheed Abidi, Suresh Ramchandani, Leena Vadhel, Abhinav Loomba
May-August 2013, 6(2):134-135
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.116664  PMID:24082679
  2,817 191 -
Surgery for macular holes associated with unusual concomitant pathologies
Dhanashree Ratra, Vishal Raval
May-August 2013, 6(2):112-115
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.116648  PMID:24082671
Macular hole (MH) is uncommonly seen in association with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), optic disc pit or choroidal coloboma. The visual disability in eyes with RP, optic disc pit or choroidal coloboma can range from mild to severe. However, the macula may not be involved in the primary pathology and hence, the central vision may be preserved in these eyes. If a MH develops in such eyes the central vision is lost, making the patient severely vision disabled. A perceived poor prognosis in such patients may lead to no intervention. However, an attempt should be made to repair and restore the macula in these situations in order to conserve the vision and limit disability. These eyes can however pose unique surgical challenges. We report our experiences of operating on cases of MH associated with unusual concomitant pathologies such as RP, choroidal coloboma, and optic pit. The outcomes and the surgical challenges differed greatly from the conventional idiopathic MH surgery.
  2,826 167 -
Infant with visual inattention and nystagmus
Rayah AL-Hajri, Anuradha Ganesh
May-August 2013, 6(2):131-131
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.116662  PMID:24082677
  2,657 174 -
Selective laser trabeculoplasty: Does energy dosage predict response?
Larissa Habib, James Lin, Tamara Berezina, Bart Holland, Robert D Fechtner, Albert S Khouri
May-August 2013, 6(2):92-95
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.116635  PMID:24082666
Background: Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) is a widely used treatment for open angle glaucoma, producing sustained reductions of intraocular pressure (IOP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term relationship between SLT energy dosage and IOP reduction. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was performed for patients receiving primary SLT therapy, with inclusion of subjects treated with 360° of SLT. Energy settings were collected upon treatment and IOP was collected at baseline up to 36 months. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine whether there was a significant correlation between SLT energy and IOP reduction at all time points. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test was performed to determine the differences in IOP reduction ≥20% from baseline among those treated with low (<85 mJ), medium (85-105 mJ), and high (>105 mJ) energy SLT. Results: A total of 104 eyes (75 patients) were included. The mean total SLT energy was 93.73 mJ (standard deviation (SD) = 21.83 mJ, range: 34.4-122 mJ). A significant positive correlation (P ≤ 0.05) between the amount of energy delivered and IOP reduction was found at all time points. Log-rank test showed a significant difference in IOP reduction ≥20% from baseline between the three energy groups, with low energy patients experiencing failure at an earlier time (P = 0.05). Conclusions: Within the range of total energy examined, there is a positive correlation between total energy used and amount of pressure reduction achieved at up to 3 years of follow-up. This may be useful in determining the optimal energy dosage for maximum effect for patients receiving SLT.
  2,581 215 -
Complimentary imaging technologies in blunt ocular trauma
Anton M Kolomeyer, Bernard C Szirth, Natasha V Nayak, Albert S Khouri
May-August 2013, 6(2):108-111
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.116644  PMID:24082670
We describe complimentary imaging technologies in traumatic chorioretinal injury. Color and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images were obtained with a non-mydriatic retinal camera. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) helped obtain detailed images of retinal structure. Microperimetry was used to evaluate the visual function. A 40-year-old man sustained blunt ocular trauma with a stone. Color fundus image showed a large chorioretinal scar in the macula. Software filters allowed detailed illustration of extensive macular fibrosis. A 58-year-old man presented with blunt force trauma with a tennis ball. Color fundus imaging showed a crescentric area of macular choroidal rupture with fibrosis. FAF imaging delineated an area of hypofluorescence greater on fundus imaging. OCT showed chorioretinal atrophy in the macula. Microperimetry delineated an absolute scotoma with no response to maximal stimuli. Fundus imaging with digital filters and FAF illustrated the full extent of chorioretinal injury, while OCT and microperimetry corroborated the structure and function correlations.
  2,579 187 -
Leber's miliary aneurysms
Walaa Alturkistany, Saad Waheeb
May-August 2013, 6(2):119-121
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.116654  PMID:24082673
Leber's disease is a form of primary retinal telangiectasia characterized by the presence of abnormalities in the retinal vasculature. It is an idiopathic, unilateral condition with male predilection. It is not associated with any other systemic or ocular disease. The disease has a very slow progression and can be complicated by vascular dilatations, neovascularizations, thromboses, retrovitreal hemorrhages, and macular changes. We present a case of Leber's miliary aneurysms in an asymptomatic 22-year-old male patient. His fundus examination showed aneurysmal dilatations with lipid exudation. Intravenous fluorescein angiography showed early and late leakage as well as capillary dropout with late hypofluorescence. In this case, the patient was treated with laser photocoagulation of the retina.
  2,544 181 -
Keratomycosis after incidental spillage of vegetative material into the eye: Report of two cases
Ali Tabatabaee, Zahra Mohajernezhadfard, Farid Daneshgar, Mohammadreza Mansouri
May-August 2013, 6(2):122-126
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.116659  PMID:24082674
Fungal corneal ulcers mostly occur after incidental corneal trauma by plant leaves in farm lands or the use of topical corticosteroids or antibiotics. The infection is more prevalent among farmers and harvesters and in some parts of the world is considered as an occupational disease; however, there have been a few reports on the occurrence of such ulcers in healthy individuals after incidental spillage of vegetative material into the eye. The importance of these ulcers is their long-term and refractory course, which makes the visual prognosis unfavorable in most patients, even after appropriate antifungal therapy or ocular interventions. Herein, we present two rare cases of fungal ulcers caused by incidental spillage of vegetative material into the eye while eating nuts and corn. We also discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, as well as visual outcome reviewing the relevant literature.
  2,456 178 1
Macular hole developing in a post-vitrectomized eye and its surgical outcome
Pukhraj Rishi, Sumanth Reddy, Ekta Rishi
May-August 2013, 6(2):135-136
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.116665  PMID:24082680
  1,960 157 -