About OJO | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Author Instructions | Reviewer Guidelines | Online submissionReader Login
Oman Journal of Ophthalmology Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
  Editorial Board | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact
https://www.omanophthalmicsociety.org/ Users Online: 444  Wide layoutNarrow layoutFull screen layout Home Print this page  Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Export selected to
Reference Manager
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
  Most cited articles *

  Archives   Most popular articles   Most cited articles
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to
  Cited Viewed PDF
Ocular chemical injuries and their management
Parul Singh, Manoj Tyagi, Yogesh Kumar, KK Gupta, PD Sharma
May-August 2013, 6(2):83-86
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.116624  PMID:24082664
Chemical burns represent potentially blinding ocular injuries and constitute a true ocular emergency requiring immediate assessment and initiation of treatment. The majority of victims are young and exposure occurs at home, work place and in association with criminal assaults. Alkali injuries occur more frequently than acid injuries. Chemical injuries of the eye produce extensive damage to the ocular surface epithelium, cornea, anterior segment and limbal stem cells resulting in permanent unilateral or bilateral visual impairment. Emergency management if appropriate may be single most important factor in determining visual outcome. This article reviews the emergency management and newer techniques to improve the prognosis of patients with chemical injuries.
  39 9,046 1,075
Choroidal melanoma
Parul Singh, Abhishek Singh
January-April 2012, 5(1):3-9
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.94718  PMID:22557869
Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary intra-ocular malignant tumor and second most common site of ten malignant melanoma sites in the body. Current diagnosis of choroidal melanoma is based on both the clinical experience of the specialist and modern diagnostic techniques such as indirect ophthalmoscopy, A- and B-ultrasonography scans, fundus fluorescein angiography, and transillumination. Invasive studies such as fine needle aspiration cytology can have significant morbidity and should only be considered if therapeutic intervention is indicated and diagnosis cannot be established by any other means. Several modes of treatment are available for choroidal melanoma. Multiple factors are taken into account when deciding one approach over other approaches, such as visual acuity of the affected eye, visual acuity of the contralateral eye, tumor size, location, ocular structures involved and presence of metastases. A comprehensive review of literature available in books and indexed journals was done. This article discusses in detail epidemiology, diagnosis, current available treatment options, and prognosis and survival of choroidal melanoma.
  27 10,256 786
Epidemiological profile of fungal keratitis in urban population of West Bengal, India
Suman Saha, Debdulal Banerjee, Archana Khetan, Jayangshu Sengupta
September-December 2009, 2(3):114-118
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.57310  PMID:20927207
Background : Corneal diseases are one of the major causes of visual loss and blindness, second only to cataract. Amongst corneal diseases, microbial keratitis is a major blinding disease. In some countries, fungal keratitis accounts for almost 50% of patients with culture-proven microbial keratitis. Aim : This study was conducted to determine the epidemiological characteristics of fungal keratitis in an urban population of West Bengal and identify the specific pathogenic organisms. Methods : The charts of patients with microbial keratitis who attended the Cornea Services of Priyamvada Birla Aravind Eye Hospital from January to December 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Records of patients with 10% KOH mount and culture positive fungal keratitis were analyzed for epidemiological features, laboratory findings and treatment outcomes. Results : Of the 289 patients of microbial keratitis included in the study, 110 patients (38.06%) were diagnosed with fungal keratitis (10% KOH mount positive). Of the 110 patients, 74 (67.27%) fitted the study inclusion criteria (10% KOH mount and culture positive). Forty five of 74 patients (60.81%) in the study group were in the older age group (>50 years). Ocular trauma in 35 cases (47.29%) was identified as a high risk factor and vegetative injuries in 17 cases (22.97%) were identified as a significant cause for fungal keratitis. Maximum organism source was from corneal scrapings in 41 cases (55%). The predominant fungal species isolated was Aspergillus sp (55.40%) followed by Candida albicans 14 cases (18.91%) and Fusarium sp. in 8 cases (10.81%). Agricultural activity related ocular trauma was the principal cause of mycotic keratitis and males were more commonly affected. Thirty of 74 cases (40.55%) of the culture positive patients healed with corneal scar formation with medical treatment whereas 44 cases (59.45%) required therapeutic keratoplasty. Conclusion : Fungal keratitis is an important cause of microbial keratitis with injury to the cornea being a leading predisposing factor. Although Aspergillus sp. was implicated in most of the patients in our study population, Candida sp. were found in higher numbers than previously reported. Keratitis caused by filamentous fungi responds adequately to medical management. Therapeutic keratoplasty continues to remain an important treatment modality in infections with Candida sp. Early diagnosis with prompt identification of the pathogenic organism is mandatory to initiate appropriate therapy and thereby reduce morbidity.
  19 8,088 870
Prevalence and associated factors of dry eye: Our experience in patients above 40 years of age at a Tertiary Care Center
Suchi Shah, Harsha Jani
September-December 2015, 8(3):151-156
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.169910  PMID:26903719
Context: Dry eye is a very common as well as under-diagnosed ocular disorder. It is not only troublesome in terms of its symptoms but also imposes a great financial burden. Aims: To determine the prevalence of dry eye in ophthalmology out-patients at a Tertiary Care Hospital and its association with various clinico-epidemiological factors. Settings and Design: A hospital-based study at a Tertiary Care Center was conducted including 400 out-patients of age 40 years and above. Materials and Methods: Patients were consecutively selected and underwent a routine ophthalmological examination along with tear film break-up time (TBUT) as a screening tool for detecting the presence of dry eye. Statistical Analysis: We performed a descriptive, univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence interval. Results: The mean age of the study population was 58.6 years. The overall prevalence of dry eye was found to be 54.3%. An association was found between dry eye prevalence and outdoor workers, participants working indoor using air conditioners, housewives, diabetics, patients who have undergone previous ocular surgery and those with meibomian gland dysfunction. Conclusions: Dry eye is a very common condition with a high prevalence among the elderly. We recommend the screening of all out-patients by TBUT, which is a simple test to perform and examination of lids for meibomian gland disease, which if present can be treated. Further studies are needed to establish uniform diagnostic criteria for dry eye, which will help to get more concrete prevalence data, as well as its etiological factors.
  18 5,856 473
Collagen cross-linking with riboflavin and ultraviolet-A light in keratoconus: One-year results
Maria Clara Arbelaez, Maria Bernardita Sekito, Camila Vidal, Sanak Roy Choudhury
January-April 2009, 2(1):33-38
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.48420  PMID:21234222
Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of riboflavin-ultraviolet type A (UV-A) light rays induced cross-linking of corneal collagen in improving visual acuity and in stabilizing the progression of keratoconic eyes. The method of corneal cross-linking using riboflavin and UV-A light is technically simple and less invasive than all other therapies proposed for keratoconus. It is the only treatment that treats not only the refractive effects of the condition but the underlying pathophysiology. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, nonrandomized clinical study, 20 eyes of 19 patients with keratoconus were treated by combined riboflavin UV-A collagen cross linking. The eyes were saturated with riboflavin solution and were subjected for 30 min under UV-A light with a dose parameter of 3 mW/cm 2 . Safety and effectiveness of the treatment was assessed by measuring the uncorrected visual acuity, best corrected visual acuity, manifest cylinder/sphere, keratometry, pachymetry, posterior and anterior elevations from Pentacam and corneal aberrations at 6 months and 1 year post-treatment. Results: Comparative analysis of the pre-operative and 1 year post-operative evaluation showed a mean gain of 4.15 lines of UCVA ( P = 0.001) and 1.65 lines of BCVA ( P = 0.002). The reduction in the average keratometry reading was 1.36 D ( P = 0.0004) and 1.4 D ( P = 0.001) at the apex. Manifest refraction sphere showed a mean reduction of 1.26 D ( P = 0.033) and 1.25 D (0.0003) for manifest cylinder. Topo-aberrometric analysis showed improvement in corneal symmetry. Conclusion: Cross-linking was safe and an effective therapeutical option for progressive keratoconus.
  16 6,828 911
Review of cystic and solid tumors of the iris
Carol L Shields, Patrick W Shields, Janet Manalac, Chaisiri Jumroendararasame, Jerry A Shields
September-December 2013, 6(3):159-164
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.122269  PMID:24379549
Iris tumors are broadly classified into cystic or solid lesions. The cystic lesions arise from iris pigment epithelium (IPE) or iris stroma. IPE cysts classically remain stable without need for intervention. Iris stromal cyst, especially those in newborns, usually requires therapy of aspiration, possibly with alcohol-induced sclerosis, or surgical resection. The solid tumors included melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions. The melanocytic iris tumors include freckle, nevus (including melanocytoma), Lisch nodule, and melanoma. Information from a tertiary referral center revealed that transformation of suspicious iris nevus to melanoma occurred in 4% by 10 years and 11% by 20 years. Risk factors for transformation of iris nevus to melanoma can be remembered using the ABCDEF guide as follows: A=age young (<40 years), B=blood (hyphema) in anterior chamber, C=clock hour of mass inferiorly, D=diffuse configuration, E=ectropion, F=feathery margins. The most powerful factors are diffuse growth pattern and hyphema. Tumor seeding into the anterior chamber angle and onto the iris stroma are also important. The nonmelanocytic iris tumors are relatively uncommon and included categories of choristomatous, vascular, fibrous, neural, myogenic, epithelial, xanthomatous, metastatic, lymphoid, leukemic, secondary, and non-neoplastic simulators. Overall, the most common diagnoses in a clinical series include nevus, IPE cyst, and melanoma. In summary, iris tumors comprise a wide spectrum including mostly iris nevus, IPE cyst, and iris melanoma. Risk factors estimating transformation of iris nevus to melanoma can be remembered by the ABCDEF guide.
  15 13,887 903
Short-term results of intravitreal dexamethasone implant (OZURDEX®) in treatment of recalcitrant diabetic macular edema: A case series
Pukhraj Rishi, Ekta Rishi, Lakshmi Kuniyal, Gaurav Mathur
May-August 2012, 5(2):79-82
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.99368  PMID:22993460
Context: Dexamethasone Posterior-Segment Drug Delivery System is a novel, biodegradable, sustained-release drug delivery system (OZURDEX® ) for treatment of macular edema following retinal vein occlusion and posterior uveitis. However, its potential role in management of diabetic macular edema has not been reported yet. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of (OZURDEX® ) in patients with recalcitrant diabetic macular edema (DME). Setting and Design: A retrospective, interventional case series from a tertiary eye care center in India is presented. Inclusion criteria comprised patients presenting with recalcitrant DME, 3 or more months after one or more treatments of macular laser photocoagulation and/or intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections. Exclusion criteria included history of corticosteroid-responsive intraocular pressure (IOP) rise, cataract extraction, or other intraocular surgery within 3 months. The main outcome measure was visual acuity at 1 and 4 months after OZURDEX® injection. Secondary outcome measures included change in central macular thickness on Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and changes in IOP following intravitreal OZURDEX® implant. Of 18 eyes (17 patients) with recalcitrant diabetic macular edema that underwent OZURDEX® implant, three eyes (two patients) had follow-up of more than 3 months post-injection. Results: Mean age of patients was 56 years. Mean duration of diabetes mellitus was 16.6 years. Systemic control of DM was good as assessed by FBS/PPBS and HbA1c. The pre-operative mean central macular thickness was 744.3 μm and improved to 144 and 570 μm at months 1 and 4, respectively. Preoperative mean BCVA was 0.6 logMAR units and improved to 0.3 and 0.46 logMAR units at month 1 and 4, respectively. The mean follow-up was 4.3 months (range 4-5 months). Conclusion: OZURDEX® appears efficacious in management of recalcitrant diabetic macular edema. The results of the ongoing POSURDEX® study will elaborate these effects better.
  14 5,967 654
Inflammatory glaucoma
Sonam A Bodh, Vasu Kumar, Usha K Raina, B Ghosh, Meenakshi Thakar
January-April 2011, 4(1):3-9
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.77655  PMID:21713239
Glaucoma is seen in about 20% of the patients with uveitis. Anterior uveitis may be acute, subacute, or chronic. The mechanisms by which iridocyclitis leads to obstruction of aqueous outflow include acute, usually reversible forms (e.g., accumulation of inflammatory elements in the intertrabecular spaces, edema of the trabecular lamellae, or angle closure due to ciliary body swelling) and chronic forms (e.g., scar formation or membrane overgrowth in the anterior chamber angle). Careful history and follow-up helps distinguish steroid-induced glaucoma from uveitic glaucoma. Treatment of combined iridocyclitis and glaucoma involves steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and antiglaucoma drugs. However, glaucoma drugs can often have an unpredictable effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) in the setting of uveitis. Surgical intervention is required in case of medical failure. Method of Literature Search : Literature on the Medline database was searched using the PubMed interface.
  12 6,849 999
Angle Kappa and its importance in refractive surgery
Majid Moshirfar, Ryan N Hoggan, Valliammai Muthappan
September-December 2013, 6(3):151-158
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.122268  PMID:24379548
Angle kappa is the difference between the pupillary and visual axis. This measurement is of paramount consideration in refractive surgery, as proper centration is required for optimal results. Angle kappa may contribute to MFIOL decentration and its resultant photic phenomena. Adjusting placement of MFIOLs for angle kappa is not supported by the literature but is likely to help reduce glare and haloes. Centering LASIK in angle kappa patients over the corneal light reflex is safe, efficacious, and recommended. Centering in-between the corneal reflex and the entrance pupil is also safe and efficacious. The literature regarding PRK in patients with an angle kappa is sparse but centering on the corneal reflex is assumed to be similar to centering LASIK on the corneal reflex. Thus, centration of MFIOLs, LASIK, and PRK should be focused on the corneal reflex for patients with a large angle kappa. More research is needed to guide surgeons' approach to angle kappa.
  12 12,263 784
A review on recent advances in dry eye: Pathogenesis and management
Ankita S Bhavsar, Samir G Bhavsar, Sunita M Jain
May-August 2011, 4(2):50-56
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.83653  PMID:21897618
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, more commonly known as dry eye, is an extremely common and often unrecognized disease. It is the condition in ophthalmology that in its mild grade of severity will affect most of the population at one time or other. Due to a wide variety of presentations and symptoms, it often frustrates the ophthalmologists as well as patients. Due to multifactorial and elusive etiology, it is often challenging to treat dry eye. Ocular surface disorders are also clinically important to treat especially in terms of visual acuity. Xero-dacryology is therefore becoming a very important branch of ophthalmology. Recent studies have given insight into the inflammatory etiology of dry eye. The conventional and main approach to the treatment of dry eye is providing lubricating eye drops or tear substitutes. However, the newer treatment approach is to target the underlying cause of dry eye instead of conventional symptomatic relief. In light of the above knowledge, the present article focuses on newer theories on pathogenesis of dry eye and their impact on dry eye management. Method of Literature Search: A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed databases in two steps. The first step was oriented to articles published for dry eye. The second step was focused on the role of inflammation and anti-inflammatory therapy for dry eye. The search strategy was not limited by year of publication. A manual literature search was also undertaken from authentic reference books on ocular surface disease.
  11 11,629 1,827
External dacryocystorhinostomy: Tips and tricks
Mohammad Javed Ali, Milind N Naik, Santosh G Honavar
September-December 2012, 5(3):191-195
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.106106  PMID:23440476
Dacryocystorhinostomy or DCR is one of the most common oculoplastics surgery performed. It is a bypass procedure that creates an anastomosis between the lacrimal sac and the nasal mucosa via a bony ostium. It may be performed through an external skin incision or intranasally with or without endoscopic visualization. This article will discuss the indications, goals, and simple techniques for a successful outcome of an external DCR.
  10 12,709 695
Applications of polymers in intraocular drug delivery systems
Ali Mohammed Alhalafi
January-April 2017, 10(1):3-8
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.200692  PMID:28298856
We are entering a new era of ophthalmic pharmacology where new drugs are rapidly being developed for the treatment of anterior and posterior segment of the eye disease. The pharmacokinetics of drug delivery to the eye remains a very active area of ophthalmic research. Intraocular drug delivery systems allow the release of the drug, bypassing the blood–ocular barrier. The main advantage of these preparations is that they can release the drug over a long time with one single administration. These pharmaceutical systems are of great important in the treatment of the posterior segment diseases, and they can be prepared from biodegradable or nonbiodegradable polymers. Biodegradable polymers have the advantage of disappearing from the site of action after releasing the drug. The majority of intraocular devices are prepared from nonbiodegradable polymers, and they can release controlled amounts of drugs for months. Nonbiodegradable polymers include silicone, polyvinyl alcohol, and ethylene-vinyl acetate. The polymers usually employed to prepare nanoparticles for the topical ophthalmic route are poly (acrylic acid) derivatives (polyalquilcyanocrylates), albumin, poly-μ-caprolactone, and chitosan. Dendrimers are a recent class of polymeric materials with unique nanostructure which has been studied to discover their role in the delivery of therapeutics and imaging agents. Hydrogels are polymers that can swell in aqueous solvent system, and they hold the solvents in a swollen cross-linked gel for delivery. This review exhibits the current literature regarding applications of polymers in ophthalmic drug delivery systems including pharmacokinetics, advantages, disadvantages, and indications aimed to obtain successful eye therapy. Method of Literature Search: A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed databases into two steps. The first step was oriented to classification of intraocular polymers implants focusing on their advantages and disadvantages. The second step was focused on the role of polymers therapy for intraocular pathology with clinical examples. The search strategy was not limited by year of publication.
  10 4,674 426
Pediatric uveitis: An update
Parthopratim Dutta Majumder, Jyotirmay Biswas
September-December 2013, 6(3):140-150
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.122267  PMID:24379547
Because of their varied spectrum of clinical presentation and difficulty in management, pediatric uveitis remains a challenge to the ophthalmologist. Variations in clinical presentation, difficulties in eye examination, extended burden of the inflammation over quality of life, limited treatment modalities, risk of amblyopia are the main challenges in the management of pediatric uveitis. Pediatric uveitis is a cause of significant ocular morbidity and severe vision loss is found in 25-33% of such cases. This article summarizes the common causes of uveitis in children with special approach to the evaluation and diagnosis of each clinical entity.
  10 13,845 1,193
Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding eye complications and care among Omani persons with diabetes - A cross sectional study
Rajiv Khandekar, Saleh Al Harby, Harith Al Harthy, Jawad Al Lawatti
May-August 2010, 3(2):60-65
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.64228  PMID:21217897
Purpose : We present the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) among diabetic patients regarding eye complications and their care. Materials and Methods : A cross sectional study was conducted in 2008 at seven regions of Oman. Arabic speaking nurses interviewed diabetics at clinics. They used a closed ended questionnaire with 15 questions. The responses were analyzed and the KAP were grouped into excellent (>80%), good (60 to 79%), average (40 to 59%), poor (20 to 39%) and very poor (<20%). They were also compared among epidemiologic variants. Result : Of the 750 participants, 'Excellent', grade of knowledge about diagnosis and eye care was present in 547 (72.9%) and 135 (18%) persons respectively. The 'excellent' grade of attitude about eye involvement and eye care was found in 135 (18%) and 224 (29.9%) participants. The practice for undergoing eye check up and accepting treatment was of 'excellent' grade in 390 (52%) and 594 (79.2%) respectively. Age (OR = 0.98), Sharqiya region (OR = 25) and '5 to 9' duration of DM (OR = 2.1) were associated with the knowledge. '<1 year' duration (OR = 0.3) and Dhakhiliya region (OR = 39) were associated with the attitude while '5 to 9 year' duration (OR = 3.4) was associated with better practices. Conclusions : Knowledge about eye complications and care is satisfactory among persons with diabetes. However, levels of attitude and practice were less than desired and should be improved. This could strengthen program approach for early detection and care of eye complications of diabetes in Oman.
  9 8,544 1,061
Accuracy of intraocular lens power calculation in high myopia
Asaad A Ghanem, Hosam M El-Sayed
September-December 2010, 3(3):126-130
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.71888  PMID:21120048
Purpose : To study the accuracy of different recent intraocular lens (IOL) calculation formulas in predicting a target postoperative refraction ± 1.0D (Diopters) in patients with long eyes (axial length ≥ 26.0 mm) undergoing phacoemulsification. Materials and Methods : This study comprised 127 eyes of 87 patients who presented with cataract and axial eye length ≥ 26 mm. Before phacoemulsification and IOL implantation; axial length measurement using immersion ultrasound A-scan technique, and autokeratometry with or without computerized corneal topography for K readings were done. The IOL power was calculated using four formulas, namely the SRK-T, Hoffer-Q, Holladay-2, and Haigis formulas. Four months after surgery, refraction was done. Differences between actual postoperative refraction and assumed target refraction using the different formulas were analyzed. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results : In all 127 eyes, the mean axial length was 31.71 mm (range, 26.06-37.11 mm) and the mean K was 44.68 D (range, 40.05-55.14D). The mean preoperative spherical equivalent (SE) was -17.52D (range, -12.25 to -30.50D). After surgery, the mean spherical equivalent was -0.8 ± 0.83D (range, +1.25 to -3.75D). The mean postoperative refractive SE when implanting a plus power IOLs was -0.3 ± 0.51D (P < 0.001) while the mean postoperative refractive SE when implanting a minus power IOLs was +1.21 ± 0.11D denoting a highly significant tendency toward hyperopia (P < 0.001). Concerning the minus power group, most postoperative refractive error was within +1.0 to +2.0D in the actual implanted IOL and in all other formula calculated IOL power. However, Haigis formula showed the least deviation while SRK-T and other formulas showed a greater tendency toward hyperopia. Conclusions : In eyes with high axial myopia, the performance of SRK-T, Hoffer-Q, Holladay-2 and Haigis formulas are comparable in low plus-powered IOL implantation. Haigis formula is the best formula when minus power IOL is implanted.
  9 9,092 975
Normative data for near point of convergence, accommodation, and phoria
Neethu G Abraham, Krithica Srinivasan, Jyothi Thomas
January-April 2015, 8(1):14-18
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.149856  PMID:25709268
Background: Measurement of for near point of convergence (NPC), amplitude of accommodation (AA) and phoria are important components of diagnosing nonstrabismic binocular vision anomalies. There is a huge variation in the normative data established for orthoptic parameters because of the variation in measurement technique. There are only limited studies for normative data based on nonclinical population in Indian population. Therefore, we aim estimate the normative values for NPC, AA, and phoria measurement in Indian population using techniques, which has good repeatability and reliability. Materials and Methods: Subjects between the age group 10-35 years participated in this prospective cross-sectional study. A self-administered symptom questionnaire was used to exclude patients with asthenopic symptoms. Clinical techniques which have good repeatability and reliability were used. NPC was measured using pen light red, green glass test. AA was measured using minus lens technique. Horizontal and vertical phoria at distance and near was measured using modified Thorington method. Results: One hundred and fifty subjects participated in the study. We found that NPC receded with age, which could because of the increase in horizontal phoria at near with age. The mean normative value for objective NPC, break and recovery of subjective NPC, monocular and binocular AA, horizontal and vertical phoria at distance and near for the three age groups are reported in the study. Conclusion: The data presented in this study can be used as a cut-off by eye care practitioners while diagnosing convergence, accommodation related anomalies in Indian population.
  9 18,770 809
Trans-epithelial versus conventional corneal collagen crosslinking: A randomized trial in keratoconus
Shah Nawaz, Shikha Gupta, Varun Gogia, NK Sasikala, Anita Panda
January-April 2015, 8(1):9-13
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.149855  PMID:25709267
Purpose: The purpose was to compare transepithelial versus epithelium off technique of corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) in patients of keratoconus. Materials and Method: Totally, 40 eyes (40 patients) with progressive keratoconus were subjected to transepithelial CXL (20 eyes; Group I), and conventional CXL (20 eyes; Group II). Patients were evaluated for uncorrected distance visual acuity, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), slit lamp-biomicroscopy, keratometry, 9-point pachymentry, orbscan II, and endothelial cell count at baseline and post CXL at 1, 3, and 6 months. Results: The two groups were similar with respect to the evaluated parameters both at baseline and at the end of 6 months. There was an improvement in mean BCVA from Log Mar 0.327 ± 0.1 (Group 1), 0.36 ± 0.08 (Group 2) to 0.23 ± 0.08 (Group 1; P < 0.001), 0.22 ± 0.06 (Group 2; P < 0.001), respectively, at 6 months. Mean Sim K astigmatism decreased from 6.6 ± 1.93 D (Group 1), 6.64 ± 1.93 D (Group 2) to 5.14 ± 1.86 D (Group 1; P = 0.001), and 4.77 ± 0.06 (Group 2; P = 0.001), respectively, at 6 months. The mean pachymetry increased from 432.05 ± 19.36 μm (Group 1), 429.91 ± 16.66 μm (Group 2) to 447.8 ± 16.09 μm (Group 1; P < 0.001), 440.25 ± 11.18 um (Group 2; P = 0.002), respectively, at 6 months. All cases showed stabilization of keratoconus two eyes in epithelium off group developed persistent stromal haze. Most of the patients in Group II experienced pain and photophobia during first 2 days, but not of Group I. Conclusion: Trans-epithelial technique offers visual and topographic outcomes similar to the conventional method with superior patient comfort postintervention.
  9 4,391 408
Glaucoma and its association with obstructive sleep apnea: A narrative review
Aditya Chaitanya, Vijaya H Pai, Aswini Kumar Mohapatra, Ramesh S Ve
September-December 2016, 9(3):125-134
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.192261  PMID:27843225
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the systemic risk factors for glaucoma which causes irreversible visual field (VF) damage. We reviewed the published data of all types of studies on the association between these two conditions and papers regarding functional and structural changes related to glaucomatous damage using Scopus, web of science, and PubMed databases. There is evidence that the prevalence of glaucoma is higher in OSA patients, which independent of intraocular pressure (IOP). Studies have reported thinning of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), alteration of optic nerve head, choroidal and macular thickness, and reduced VF sensitivity in patients of OSA with no history glaucoma. A negative correlation of apnea-hypopnea index with RNFL and VF indices has been described in some studies. Raised IOP was noted which is possibly related to obesity, supine position during sleep, and raised intracranial pressure. Diurnal fluctuations of IOP show more variations in OSA patients before and after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy when compared with the normal cases. The vascular factors behind the pathogenesis include recurrent hypoxia with increased vascular resistance, oxidative stress damage to the optic nerve. In conclusion, comprehensive glaucoma evaluation should be recommended in patients with OSA and should also periodically monitor IOP during CPAP treatment which may trigger the progression of glaucomatous damage.
  9 6,538 445
Corneal biomechanics in iatrogenic ectasia and keratoconus: A review of the literature
Majid Moshirfar, Jason N Edmonds, Nicholas L Behunin, Steven M Christiansen
January-April 2013, 6(1):12-17
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.111895  PMID:23772119
The Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) (Reichert Ophthalmic Instruments, Buffalo, NY) allows direct measurement of corneal biomechanical properties. Since its introduction, many studies have sought to elucidate the clinical applications of corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF). More recently, detailed corneal deformation signal waveform analysis (WA) has potentially expanded the diagnostic capabilities of the ORA. In this review, the role of CH, CRF, and WA are examined in keratoconus (KC) and iatrogenic ectasia (IE). The PubMed database was searched electronically for peer-reviewed literature in July 2012 and August 2012 without date restrictions. The search strategy included medical subject heading (MeSH) and natural language terms to retrieve references on corneal biomechanics, CH, CRF, corneal deformation signal WA, IE, and KC. The evidence suggests that while CH and CRF are poor screening tools when used alone, increased sensitivity and specificity of KC and IE screening result when these parameters are combined with tomography and topography. Recent advances in WA are promising, but little is currently understood about its biomechanical and clinical relevance. Future studies should seek to refine the screening protocols for KC and IE as well as define the clinical applicability of WA parameters.
  9 4,030 486
A brief history of corneal transplantation: From ancient to modern
Alexandra X Crawford, Dipika V Patel, Charles NJ McGhee
December 2013, 6(4):12-17
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.122289  PMID:24391366
This review highlights many of the fundamental concepts and events in the development of corneal transplantation - from ancient times to modern. Tales of eye, limb, and even heart transplantation appear in ancient and medieval texts; however, in the scientific sense, the original concepts of corneal surgery date back to the Greek physician Galen (130-200 AD). Although proposals to provide improved corneal clarity by surgical interventions, including keratoprostheses, were better developed by the 17 th and 18 th centuries, true scientific and surgical experimentation in this field did not begin until the 19 th century. Indeed, the success of contemporary corneal transplantation is largely the result of a culmination of pivotal ideas, experimentation, and perseverance by inspired individuals over the last 200 years. Franz Reisinger initiated experimental animal corneal transplantation in 1818, coining the term "keratoplasty". Subsequently, Wilhelmus Thorne created the term corneal transplant and 3 years later Samuel Bigger, 1837, reported successful corneal transplantation in a gazelle. The first recorded therapeutic corneal xenograft on a human was reported shortly thereafter in 1838-unsurprisingly this was unsuccessful. Further progress in corneal transplantation was significantly hindered by limited understanding of antiseptic principles, anesthesiology, surgical technique, and immunology. There ensued an extremely prolonged period of debate and experimentation upon the utility of animal compared to human tissue, and lamellar versus penetrating keratoplasty. Indeed, the first successful human corneal transplant was not performed by Eduard Zirm until 1905. Since that first successful corneal transplant, innumerable ophthalmologists have contributed to the development and refinement of corneal transplantation aided by the development of surgical microscopes, refined suture materials, the development of eye banks, and the introduction of corticosteroids. Recent developments, including the replacement of selected corneal layers rather than full-thickness keratoplasty, have the potential to improve or transform corneal transplant surgery in the future.
  9 7,132 581
Sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid
Upender K Wali, Abdullah Al-Mujaini
September-December 2010, 3(3):117-121
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.71885  PMID:21120046
Sebaceous gland carcinoma, commonly arises in the periocular area, is an uncommon condition. It represents 1-5.5% of eyelid malignancies and is considered to be the third most common eyelid malignancy after basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas, although few reports placed this tumor as second most common after basal cell carcinoma. It usually affects elderly women and characterized by high rate of local recurrence, regional, and distant metastases. A delay in diagnosis, which can be attributed primarily to ability of this tumor to masquerade as more benign conditions, often leads to inappropriate management with increased morbidity and mortality rates. In this study, the authors discuss key elements of the primary disease and therapeutic options available to treat such devastating problem.
  9 8,778 675
Topiramate-induced angle closure with acute myopia, macular striae
S Natesh, SK Rajashekhara, A.S.D Rao, B Shetty
January-April 2010, 3(1):26-28
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.60018  PMID:20606870
Topiramate is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide used in the treatment of seizures, and prophylaxis of migraine. A number of ocular side-effects have been described with use of topiramate, like bilateral angle closure, acute myopia and macular striae. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) clinches the diagnosis after ruling out other causes of shallow anterior chamber. Previous studies have not demonstrated internal limiting membrane folds presenting as macular striae. We report a case of topiramate-induced acute myopia with angle closure and macular striae in a young adult. This is the first report wherein striae formation after low doses of topiramate and their resolution have been documented by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT).
  7 4,910 652
Orbital myiasis in a case of invasive basal cell carcinoma
UK Raina, M Gupta, V Kumar, B Ghosh, R Sood, SA Bodh
January-April 2009, 2(1):41-42
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.48422  PMID:21234224
  7 2,824 386
Anesthesia for cataract surgery: Recent trends
Rikin Shah
September-December 2010, 3(3):107-108
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.71881  PMID:21120044
  7 5,678 799
Topical anesthesia in phacoemulsification
Saad Waheeb
September-December 2010, 3(3):136-139
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.71892  PMID:21120050
Purpose : To evaluate the efficacy of topical anesthesia; topical Benoxinate 0.4% (Oxybuprocaine) and Xylocaine (Lidocaine) gel, in selected cataract patients as an alternative to peribulbar or retrobulbar block anesthesia during cataract surgery. Materials and Methods : Prospective non-comparative evaluation of patients' and surgeon's satisfaction at the end of the procedure. Three hundred patients (300 eyes) were included in the study. The procedure was explained to patients with details regarding what will happen and what to expect during surgery. All patients received topical anesthesia with Benoxinate 0.4% eye drops and Xylocaine gel 2%. All surgeries were done by the same surgeon using the same machine (updated LEGACY phacoemulsifier, Alcon) and approach (clear corneal incision) and followed by a foldable intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Results : None of the patients had severe pain during the procedure; only 2% (six of 300) required use of intravenous sedation (Propofol), both the surgeon's and the patients' satisfaction were high. Eye movements and blepharospasm were not significant problems, and no serious complications occurred. Rate of vitreous loss due to posterior capsule tear/rupture was within literature reported range and not different from our previous experience. Conclusion : Topical anesthesia is a satisfactory and safe alternative to retrobulbar and peribulbar anesthesia for clear corneal phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in selected cataract patients in the hands of experienced cataract surgeon.
  7 4,367 496
* Source: CrossRef