About OJO | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Author Instructions | Reviewer Guidelines | Online submissionLogin 
Oman Journal of Ophthalmology Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
  Editorial Board | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact
https://www.omanophthalmicsociety.org/ Users Online: 1015  Wide layoutNarrow layoutFull screen layout Home Print this page  Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size

 Table of Contents    
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 74-75  

Waardenburg Shah syndrome: A rare case from India

1 Department of Ophthalmology, RPC, AIIMS, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Ophthalmology, North DMC Medical College and Hindu Rao Hospital, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Medicine, R. B. Medical Centre, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication23-Jan-2015

Correspondence Address:
Meenakshi Wadhwani
Department of Ophthalmology, RPC, AIIMS, New Delhi
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-620X.149899

Rights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
Wadhwani M, Gupta YK, Gangwani K. Waardenburg Shah syndrome: A rare case from India. Oman J Ophthalmol 2015;8:74-5

How to cite this URL:
Wadhwani M, Gupta YK, Gangwani K. Waardenburg Shah syndrome: A rare case from India. Oman J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2022 Oct 3];8:74-5. Available from: https://www.ojoonline.org/text.asp?2015/8/1/74/149899


This case has been highlighted to describe the role of an ophthalmologist in timely diagnosis of this rare condition so that optimal rehabilitation for vision and treatment for other associated disorders can be done in the patient.

Waardenburg syndrome (WS), is a rare hereditary disorder characterized by varying degree of sensorineural hearing loss, iris pigmentary disorders, and disorders in the structures arising from neural crest. It was first described by the Dutch ophthalmologist Petrus Johannes Waardenburg in 1951. Based on genotypic and phenotypic variations, four different types of WS have been described, types I and II are the most common whereas types III (or Klein-WS) and WS type IV (or Waardenburg-Shah syndrome) are rare. [1],[2]

We hereby describe a rare case of Waardenburg Shah syndrome (WS type IV) from India. Till now, 49 cases of WS type IV have been reported. [3]

A 16-year-old girl came to our outpatient department with the complaints of diminution of vision and difference in the color of both eyes. On ocular examination, visual acuity was 20/100 (OU). She was found to have blue colored iris in the OD and normal colored iris in the OS [Figure 1]a. Her horizontal palpebral aperture was smaller in both the eyes (26 mm) along with dystopia canthorum (lateral displacement of inner canthi) and synophrys (medial eyebrow flare), her innercanthal distance was 36 mm and interpupillary distance was 54 mm. Fundus examination revealed hypopigmented fundus in OD and normal pigmentation in OS [Figure 1]b, rest of the examination of anterior and posterior segment was within normal limits in OU. General physical examination revealed slurred speech, hearing loss and broad high nasal root, hypoplasia of alae nasi. Her refraction was +1.25 DS in both eyes; her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/60 in both the eyes.
Figure 1: (a) Color photograph showing brilliant blue iris in right eye (b) Fundus photograph depicting hypopigmented fundus in right eye

Click here to view

She gave history of frequent vomiting at the time of birth for which she was operated. Her past treatment records revealed Hirschsprung's disease. Hearing tests revealed Sensori neural hearing loss, there was a history of similar disorder in the mother. A provisional diagnosis of WS type IV was made.

There are five major and minor diagnostic criteria for WS. The major criteria are congenital sensorineural hearing loss, pigmentary disturbances of the iris and hair, affected first degree relative, dystopia canthorum (lateral displacement of inner canthi), and W index that exceeds 1.95. [2] The minor criteria are congenital vitiligo, synophrys (medial eyebrow flare), broad high nasal root, hypoplasia of alae nasi, and premature graying of hair. According to this criterion, a person must have two major or one minor criteria to be diagnosed as WS type I, WS type II lacks dystopia canthorum, WS III has associated upper limb defects and type IV has associated Hirschsprungs disease along with above features. [3],[4],[5]

The index case presented with different colored iris, dystopia canthorum and synophrys, broad nasal root, sensory neural deafness, a similar disorder in the mother and associated Hirschsprung's disease, her W index was 2.22. On the basis of the above features, a diagnosis of Waardenburg type IV was made.

   References Top

Arias S. Genetic heterogeneity in the Waardenburg syndrome. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser 1971;07:87-101.  Back to cited text no. 1
Mehta M, Sethi S, Pushker N, Bajaj MS, Ghose S. Delayed presentation of children with Waardenburg syndrome. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2010;47:382-3.  Back to cited text no. 2
Egbalian F. Waardenburg-Shah syndrome; a case report and review of the literature. Iran J Pediatr 2008;18:71-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
Dourmishev AL, Dourmishev LA, Schwartz RA, Janniger CK. Waardenburg syndrome. Int J Dermatol 1999;38:656-63.  Back to cited text no. 4
Nayak CS, Isaacson G. Worldwide distribution of Waardenburg syndrome. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2003;112:817-20.  Back to cited text no. 5


  [Figure 1]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded170    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal