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   2012| January-April  | Volume 5 | Issue 1  
    Online since April 7, 2012

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Choroidal melanoma
Parul Singh, Abhishek Singh
January-April 2012, 5(1):3-9
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.94718  PMID:22557869
Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary intra-ocular malignant tumor and second most common site of ten malignant melanoma sites in the body. Current diagnosis of choroidal melanoma is based on both the clinical experience of the specialist and modern diagnostic techniques such as indirect ophthalmoscopy, A- and B-ultrasonography scans, fundus fluorescein angiography, and transillumination. Invasive studies such as fine needle aspiration cytology can have significant morbidity and should only be considered if therapeutic intervention is indicated and diagnosis cannot be established by any other means. Several modes of treatment are available for choroidal melanoma. Multiple factors are taken into account when deciding one approach over other approaches, such as visual acuity of the affected eye, visual acuity of the contralateral eye, tumor size, location, ocular structures involved and presence of metastases. A comprehensive review of literature available in books and indexed journals was done. This article discusses in detail epidemiology, diagnosis, current available treatment options, and prognosis and survival of choroidal melanoma.
  7,147 661 7
CLINICAL IMAGES
Bilateral persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous: A rare entity
Ritu Galhotra, Kamini Gupta, Samarjeet Kaur, Paramdeep Singh
January-April 2012, 5(1):58-60
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.94780  PMID:22557881
  5,179 333 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Lacrimal gland lymphoma: Role of radiation therapy
Natasha Townsend, Aruna Turaka, Mitchell R Smith
January-April 2012, 5(1):37-41
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.94765  PMID:22557875
Background: To report the clinical and treatment outcome of patients with lacrimal gland lymphoma (LGL) treated with radiation therapy (RT) at Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approved retrospective chart review of eight patients and literature review. Results: The study patients included six males and two females with a mean age of 70 years (range 58-88 years). The mean follow-up period was 23 months (range 3-74 months). Four patients had mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (50%) lymphoma and four patients had other non-Hodgkin's lymphoma variants. Four patients had bilateral disease (50%). Four patients had primary LGL (stages I-IIAE, 50%) and four had LGL as part of systemic lymphoma (stage IVAE, 50%). The median RT dose was 2987 cGy (range 2880-3015 cGy). All patients had complete response to RT with symptomatic relief. Minimal dry eye was seen in all patients. There were no late effects such as corneal ulcer, radiation retinopathy, maculopathy, papillopathy, or secondary neovascular glaucoma. Conclusions: RT alone is an extremely effective treatment in the curative management of localized LGL and provides durable, local control of secondary LGL.
  3,832 295 1
Childhood microbial keratitis
Abdullah G Al Otaibi, Khalid Allam, Al Johara Damri, Aysha Al Shamri, Hatem Kalantan, Ahmed Mousa
January-April 2012, 5(1):28-31
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.94763  PMID:22557873
Purpose: To evaluate risk factors for pediatric microbial keratitis and to describe the clinical picture, microbial spectrum, treatment modalities, posttreatment sequelae, and visual outcome in cases with pediatric microbial keratitis. Materials and Methods: All cases of microbial keratitis that occurred in children 16 years or younger who had an initial examination between January 2000 and December 2010 at a tertiary referral eye hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were identified. A retrospective review of medical records was conducted using a computer-based diagnosis code. Demographic data, predisposing factors, clinical course, microbial culture results, and visual outcomes were recorded. Results: Sixty-eight eyes were included in this study. Predisposing factors were identified in 63 eyes (92.6%). All patients had unilateral microbial keratitis. The mean±SD age was 4.5 ± 4.8 years and 57.4% were male. Trauma was the leading cause [27 eyes (39.7%)], followed by systemic diseases [14 eyes (20.6%)], contact lens wear [11 eyes (16.1%)], and ocular diseases [11 eyes (16.1%)]. Corneal scraping was performed in all cases. Five patients needed general anesthesia to carry out the corneal scraping. Thirty-four (50.0%) eyes showed positive cultures. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 67.8% and gram-negative bacteria for 38.2% of isolates. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most commonly isolated organism [8 eyes (25.8%)], followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis [7 eyes (22.7%)]. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most commonly isolated gram-negative [6 eyes (17.6%)] organism. One eye had corneal perforation and required surgical intervention. Forty-five of 68 eyes (66.2%) had a best-corrected visual acuity evaluation at the last follow-up and 28 eyes (62.2%) of them had a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Conclusion: Children with suspected microbial keratitis require comprehensive evaluation and management. Early recognition, identifying the predisposing factors and etiological microbial organisms, and instituting appropriate treatment measures have a crucial role in outcome. Ocular trauma was the leading cause of childhood microbial keratitis in our study.
  3,719 303 4
CASE REPORTS
Toxoplasmic pachymeningitis with visual field impairment in a single-eyed patient and a literature review
Nicolas Bonnin, Frédéric Chiambaretta, Miguel Ulla, Frédéric Taithe, Emmanuel Chabert, Béatrice Claise, Franck Bacin
January-April 2012, 5(1):46-50
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.94768  PMID:22557877
To describe the clinical features of a patient with toxoplasmic pachymeningitis and provide a review of the recent cases of pachymeningitis in the literature.Retrospective, observational case report. A one-eyed patient who presented to our institution with blurred vision, floaters, and visual field shrinkage. Review of clinical, laboratory, perimetric, and radiologic records of the patient and description of the efficacy of antibiotic therapy. The signs of ocular impairment, including visual acuity, visual field, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes. A one-eyed patient who complained of blurred vision and unexplained visual field shrinkage was evaluated. The diagnosis of toxoplasmic pachymeningitis was confirmed by existence of a toxoplasmic seroconversion, cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities, radiological features, absence of other diagnoses, improvement of symptoms, and resolution of pachymeningitis in MRI with oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination. Pachymeningitis is a rare disease and toxoplasmic pachymeningitis has never been described. Among the various infectious causes, screening for toxoplasmosis must be performed because it can lead to pachymeningitis and sequelae. Variable features may lead to misdiagnosis and delay in the treatment of this sight-threatening and potentially fatal disease.
  3,467 222 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Initial experience with Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty in Saudi Arabia
Mohamed M Hantera, Fady El Sayyed, Khalid M Al Arfaj
January-April 2012, 5(1):10-15
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.94720  PMID:22557870
Purpose: To analyze the visual results of Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in the first consecutive 10 cases. Materials and Methods: Retrospective, non-randomized, non-comparative interventional case series. Ten eyes of 10 patients with endothelial dysfunctions of different etiology, scheduled for DSEAK, were included in this study. Indications, operative problems, and postoperative complications were noted. Best-corrected visual acuity, refractive and keratometric astigmatism, and central corneal thickness were analyzed for each patient after a minimum follow-up of 10 months. Results: In a median follow-up of 12 months (range 10-16 months), visual outcomes were satisfactory. Preoperative diagnosis included five eyes of psuedophakic bullous keratopathy and two eyes of repeated failed corneal grafts and one bullous keratopathy secondary to anterior chamber phakic IOL implantation. Two eyes with Fuchs dystrophy and cataract had combined DSAEK and phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. One patient had known glaucomatous optic nerve precluding vision better than 20/150. Of the remaining nine patients, four eyes had BSCVA of 20/40 or better by postoperative 6 months (3 by 3 months). The average pachymetry was 646.9 μm. One patient had total graft dislocation and one needed trabeculectomy. None of the patients developed graft rejection or graft failure. None of patients needed to convert to penetrating keratoplasty. Conclusion: DSAEK is safe and effective procedure in patients with endothelial dysfunctions with encouraging surgical and visual outcomes.
  2,972 236 -
Association of IFN-g+874(T/A) polymorphism with female patients of age-related cataracts
Mamata Manne, Sridhar Gunde, Ravi Kumar Reddy Kondreddy, Nagaraju Thurlapati, Padma Tirunilai
January-April 2012, 5(1):32-36
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.94764  PMID:22557874
Aim: Exposure to UV light is the major risk factor in the development of age-related cataract (ARC). UV filters produced during tryptophan catabolism maintain the transparency of the lens and protect retina from photo damage. Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), the first rate-limiting enzyme in the tryptophan catabolism, is up regulated by interferon-gamma (IFN-g) which harbors single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The T allele of SNP at +874 position of the IFN-g is known to be associated with the up regulation of IDO than the allele A. Hence, we attempted to study the IFN-g+874(T/A) polymorphism for its association with ARCs. Materials and Methods: A total of 680 cataract cases [199 nuclear (NC), 175 cortical (CC), 174 posterior subcapsular (PSC), and 132 mixed types (MT)] and 210 healthy controls were genotyped for +874(T/A) polymorphism using amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction on 2% agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. Results: There was increased risk for CC and PSC when the patients happened to be females, with low body mass index and with early onset. Considering the IFN-g polymorphism, a high risk was observed for CC and PSC in female patients of AA genotype with significant protection for those with TT genotypes. Conclusion: Present results indicate that +874(T/A) polymorphism may be considered as one of the biomarkers to distinguish between the CC and PSC types of cataracts for risk estimations. The study appears to be the first of its kind reporting an association of IFN-g+874(T/A) polymorphism with ARCs.
  2,867 263 2
Pars plana Baerveldt tube insertion with pars plana vitrectomy for refractory glaucoma
Anton M Kolomeyer, H Jane Kim, Albert S Khouri, Paul J Lama, Robert D Fechtner, Marco A Zarbin, Neelakshi Bhagat
January-April 2012, 5(1):19-27
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.94762  PMID:22557872
Background: Glaucoma drainage implants (GDIs) are used for managing recalcitrant glaucoma and are usually placed in the anterior chamber. This approach may lead to complications such as corneal decompensation, and so a pars plana approach is used in at risk eyes. Aims: To compare functional outcomes and complications of 250 mm 2 and 350 mm 2 pars plana Baerveldt tube insertion with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) (both 20- and 23-gauge) for managing refractory glaucoma. Settings and Design: A retrospective chart review of 38 patients (39 eyes) undergoing combined PPV-Baerveldt procedure for glaucoma recalcitrant to maximal medical treatment or previous filtering procedures with >6 weeks of follow-up. Materials and Methods: Main outcome measures were visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications, and postoperative complications. Statistical Analysis Used: A paired 't' test was used to evaluate changes in IOP and glaucoma medications, Fisher's exact test was used to compare complication rates, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed for comparison of overall outcomes. Results: Mean patient age was 62.2 years. Mean follow-up period was 33.7 months, with 36 (92%) eyes followed for ≥6 months. Mean±SD preoperative IOP and number of glaucoma medications were significantly reduced by the combined procedure (P<0.05). Thirty-five (90%) eyes maintained final IOP between 6 and 21 mmHg. Vision improved by ≥2 lines in 10 (26%) eyes, remained stable in 15 (38%) eyes, and decreased in 14 (36%) eyes. Two (5.1%) eyes developed no light perception vision, with one (2.6%) eye becoming phthisical. Twenty-four (62%) eyes developed complications managed with conservative measures. Five (13%) eyes required ≥1 surgeries within a year of the combined procedure. Conclusions: Pars plana Baerveldt tube implantation with PPV can preserve vision, reduce IOP, and decrease the number of glaucoma medications necessary to achieve target IOP in patients with recalcitrant glaucoma.
  2,826 276 1
EDITORIAL COMMENTARY
Changing trends of population and blindness in Oman: A need for urgent action
Rajiv Khandekar, Abdulatif Al Raisi
January-April 2012, 5(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.94717  PMID:22557868
  2,773 298 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinicopathological correlation of choroidal melanoma in Indian population: A study of 113 cases
Maneesh Dhupper, Jyotirmay Biswas, Lingam Gopal, S Krishna Kumar, Vikas Khetan
January-April 2012, 5(1):42-45
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.94766  PMID:22557876
Aim: To correlate the clinical presentation, tumor characteristics, and histopathological findings of choroidal melanoma in the Indian population Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 113 patients of choroidal melanoma over a period of 10 years was done. Patient demography, clinical presentation, tumor characteristics, and histopathological findings were correlated. Results: Among 113 patients histopathologically diagnosed with choroidal melanoma over 10 years, most were males. The mean age was 45.9 ± 14.84 years among which 6 (5.3%) patients were less than 20 years. Thirty-six (31.8%) patients were misdiagnosed. The mean basal diameter was 12.41 ± 1.4 mm. Mixed cell type was seen in 71 (63%) patients, while 28 (25%) patients had spindle cell type. Epithelioid cell type was present in 11 (10%) patients and necrotic cell type was seen in 3 (2%) patients. Enucleation was the primary treatment modality in 107 (94.6%) patients, while exenteration was done in 6 (5.3%) patients. Three patients with epithelioid cell type with orbital extension underwent exenteration. The mean follow-up period was 14 months. No mortality was reported at the end of 5 years in patients with longer follow-up. Conclusions: Malignant melanoma of the choroid is a rare occurrence. They can occur in younger age group and can be misdiagnosed. Mixed cell type is commonest. Diffuse tumors with epithelioid cell type are likely to have orbital extension.
  2,672 269 -
CASE REPORTS
Central serous chorioretinopathy secondary to trauma
Thomas E Jackson, Vaneeta Sood, Paul M Haigh
January-April 2012, 5(1):51-52
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.94771  PMID:22557878
The first case of central serous chorioretinopathy secondary to blunt trauma is presented. Optical coherence tomography performed on presentation, 3 days after trauma, demonstrated a neurosensory detachment of the macular, thus confirming clinical findings. At 3 months after injury, the retina had spontaneously flattened at the macular and vision had returned to normal.
  2,673 250 1
CLINICAL IMAGES
Fusiform appearance of optic nerve sheath meningioma: Correlating clinical and imaging findings
Konstantinos T Tsaousis, Dimitrios Balatsoukas
January-April 2012, 5(1):55-57
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.94776  PMID:22557880
  2,679 208 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Normal conjunctival flora and their antibiotic sensitivity in Omanis undergoing cataract surgery
Belur R Keshav, Somansu Basu
January-April 2012, 5(1):16-18
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.94722  PMID:22557871
Purpose: To evaluate the normal conjunctival flora and to ascertain their sensitivity to antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Prospective study was undertaken with 56 patients scheduled for cataract surgery. In each of these patients, conjunctival swab was taken from both eyes before instilling any antibiotic drops or local anesthetics and were sent for culture sensitivity by inoculating the samples in blood agar plates. The un-operated eyes served as controls for the study. The results were tabulated and analyzed by applying confidence intervals at 95% confidence limits. Results: Of the 112 eyes studied, positive cultures were obtained from 54 eyes (48.3%) preoperatively, and included both operated and control eyes. Coagulase-negative staphylococcus was isolated in 44 eyes (81.5%). Maximum sensitivity was found with vancomycin, gentamycin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin and maximum resistance with fusidic acid, penicillin, and oxacillin. Conclusion: We conclude that coagulase-negative staphylococcus are the most common bacteria isolated from the conjunctival sac, and vancomycin followed by gentamycin and ciprofloxacin are most effective against normal conjunctiva l flora, and fusidic acid the most ineffective of all the antibiotics tested.
  2,566 301 -
CLINICAL IMAGES
Brain stem tuberculoma presenting with isolated ocular motility abnormality: A series of two cases and review of literature
Kumudini Sharma, Vikas Kanaujia, Sushila Jaiswal, Anu Jain, Sheo Kumar, Arun Kumar Srivastava, Awadhesh Kumar Jaiswal
January-April 2012, 5(1):61-63
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.94782  PMID:22557882
  2,153 278 -
Spontaneous separation of inflammatory epiretinal membrane in a patient with toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis
Aditi Gupta, Lingam Gopal, Jyotirmay Biswas
January-April 2012, 5(1):64-65
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.94786  PMID:22557883
  2,025 208 2
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Disappearance of extramacular drusen after chronic retinal detachment
Lik Thai Lim, Joseph Holicki, Jonathan D Walker
January-April 2012, 5(1):67-67
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.94793  PMID:22557885
  2,027 189 -
CLINICAL IMAGES
Retinal vasoproliferative tumor with total retinal detachment managed with plaque radiotherapy
Stephanie J Nickerson, Saad A Al-Dahmash, Carol L Shields, Jerry A Shields
January-April 2012, 5(1):53-54
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.94773  PMID:22557879
  1,741 222 2
CLINICAL QUIZ
Acute central loss of vision in a teen
Mohamed Al-Abri, Ahmed Al-Hinai
January-April 2012, 5(1):66-66
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.94791  PMID:22557884
  1,547 222 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Intravitreal bevacizumab and diabetic papillopathy with macular edema
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
January-April 2012, 5(1):68-68
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.94797  PMID:22557887
  1,417 199 -
Macrostriae in endothelial keratoplasty
Majid Moshirfar, Maylon Hsu
January-April 2012, 5(1):67-68
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.94795  PMID:22557886
  1,314 166 -
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