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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Assessment of a modification of Brückner's test as a screening modality for anisometropia and strabismus
Abadan Khan Amitava, D Kewlani, Z Khan, A Razzak
September-December 2010, 3(3):131-135
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.71890  PMID:21120049
Background : Current amblyopia screening methods are not cost effective. Aim : To evaluate the diagnostic capability of a modified Brückner test (MBT) for amblyopiogenic risk factors. Materials and Methods : We applied the MBT using the streak retinoscope to identify anisometropia and strabismus by noting an inter-ocular difference in movement and glow, from children who failed 6/9 Snellen on community vision screening, followed by comprehensive eye examination. Statisitics : Data were analyzed by 2 Χ 2 tables for diagnostic test parameters (95% CI). Results : From 7998 children vision-screened, 392 failed 6/9 VA and were referred. Since 34 failed to reach the centers, and 15 were excluded due to poor/ no glow, data from 343 was analyzed. The prevalence of anisometropia of 0.5D was 17%, of 1D was 11% and of strabismus 5%. For the MBT the accuracy was ≥ 90% (95%CI 89% to 97%) over the three outcomes. The sensitivity, specificity, NPV and +LR for anisometropia of 0.5D were: 0.57 (0.48, 0.64), 0.97 (0.95, 0.98), 0.92 (0.90, 0.93) and 18 (9.7, 35); for 1D: 0.74(0.60, 0.82), 0.95 (0.94, 0.97), 0.97 (0.95, 0.98) and 16 (9.3, 28); and for strabismus: 0.5 (0.32, 0.66), 0.98 (0.97, 0.98), 0.97 (0.96, 0.98) and 20 (9.1, 42). Conclusion : Our data suggests that the MBT is highly accurate and useful for ruling in anisometropia and strabismus in children who fail 6/9 Snellen. The MBT needs further validation, both by different care givers and on differing populations. It offers an affordable, portable, and clinically useful tool to detect anisometropia and strabismus. We suggest that performing an MBT prior to uniocular retinosocpy should be a routine practice.
  13,471 565 -
CLINICAL IMAGES
Recurrent bilateral subconjunctival hemorrhage as an initial presentation of multiple myeloma
Anthony F Felipe, Jennifer M Nottage, Christopher J Rapuano
May-August 2012, 5(2):133-134
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.99384  PMID:22993476
  10,549 346 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
A review on recent advances in dry eye: Pathogenesis and management
Ankita S Bhavsar, Samir G Bhavsar, Sunita M Jain
May-August 2011, 4(2):50-56
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.83653  PMID:21897618
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, more commonly known as dry eye, is an extremely common and often unrecognized disease. It is the condition in ophthalmology that in its mild grade of severity will affect most of the population at one time or other. Due to a wide variety of presentations and symptoms, it often frustrates the ophthalmologists as well as patients. Due to multifactorial and elusive etiology, it is often challenging to treat dry eye. Ocular surface disorders are also clinically important to treat especially in terms of visual acuity. Xero-dacryology is therefore becoming a very important branch of ophthalmology. Recent studies have given insight into the inflammatory etiology of dry eye. The conventional and main approach to the treatment of dry eye is providing lubricating eye drops or tear substitutes. However, the newer treatment approach is to target the underlying cause of dry eye instead of conventional symptomatic relief. In light of the above knowledge, the present article focuses on newer theories on pathogenesis of dry eye and their impact on dry eye management. Method of Literature Search: A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed databases in two steps. The first step was oriented to articles published for dry eye. The second step was focused on the role of inflammation and anti-inflammatory therapy for dry eye. The search strategy was not limited by year of publication. A manual literature search was also undertaken from authentic reference books on ocular surface disease.
  8,039 1,731 3
EDITORIAL COMMENTARY
Ischemic optic neuropathy and cataract extraction: What do I need to know?
Timothy J McCulley
September-December 2012, 5(3):141-143
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.106090  PMID:23436973
  7,238 2,458 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Normative data for near point of convergence, accommodation, and phoria
Neethu G Abraham, Krithica Srinivasan, Jyothi Thomas
January-April 2015, 8(1):14-18
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.149856  PMID:25709268
Background: Measurement of for near point of convergence (NPC), amplitude of accommodation (AA) and phoria are important components of diagnosing nonstrabismic binocular vision anomalies. There is a huge variation in the normative data established for orthoptic parameters because of the variation in measurement technique. There are only limited studies for normative data based on nonclinical population in Indian population. Therefore, we aim estimate the normative values for NPC, AA, and phoria measurement in Indian population using techniques, which has good repeatability and reliability. Materials and Methods: Subjects between the age group 10-35 years participated in this prospective cross-sectional study. A self-administered symptom questionnaire was used to exclude patients with asthenopic symptoms. Clinical techniques which have good repeatability and reliability were used. NPC was measured using pen light red, green glass test. AA was measured using minus lens technique. Horizontal and vertical phoria at distance and near was measured using modified Thorington method. Results: One hundred and fifty subjects participated in the study. We found that NPC receded with age, which could because of the increase in horizontal phoria at near with age. The mean normative value for objective NPC, break and recovery of subjective NPC, monocular and binocular AA, horizontal and vertical phoria at distance and near for the three age groups are reported in the study. Conclusion: The data presented in this study can be used as a cut-off by eye care practitioners while diagnosing convergence, accommodation related anomalies in Indian population.
  8,709 647 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Pediatric uveitis: An update
Parthopratim Dutta Majumder, Jyotirmay Biswas
September-December 2013, 6(3):140-150
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.122267  PMID:24379547
Because of their varied spectrum of clinical presentation and difficulty in management, pediatric uveitis remains a challenge to the ophthalmologist. Variations in clinical presentation, difficulties in eye examination, extended burden of the inflammation over quality of life, limited treatment modalities, risk of amblyopia are the main challenges in the management of pediatric uveitis. Pediatric uveitis is a cause of significant ocular morbidity and severe vision loss is found in 25-33% of such cases. This article summarizes the common causes of uveitis in children with special approach to the evaluation and diagnosis of each clinical entity.
  7,461 1,092 -
CASE REPORTS
Fraser syndrome in three consecutive siblings
Kaarthigeyan Kalaniti, V Sandhya
May-August 2011, 4(2):87-89
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.83661  PMID:21897626
Fraser syndrome (FS) is a rare disorder characterized by a combination of acrofacial and urogenital malformations with or without cryptophthalmos. We report a newborn and its two elder siblings who had multiple congenital anomalies and clinico-radiological features consistent with FS.
  8,150 369 1
CLINICAL IMAGES
Orbital pseudotumor
Muqtasid A Kamili, G Ali, Ishrat H Dar, Showkat H Dar, Hardeep Singh Wazir, Tariq Qureishi
May-August 2009, 2(2):96-99
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.53043  PMID:20671840
  6,742 997 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Review of cystic and solid tumors of the iris
Carol L Shields, Patrick W Shields, Janet Manalac, Chaisiri Jumroendararasame, Jerry A Shields
September-December 2013, 6(3):159-164
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.122269  PMID:24379549
Iris tumors are broadly classified into cystic or solid lesions. The cystic lesions arise from iris pigment epithelium (IPE) or iris stroma. IPE cysts classically remain stable without need for intervention. Iris stromal cyst, especially those in newborns, usually requires therapy of aspiration, possibly with alcohol-induced sclerosis, or surgical resection. The solid tumors included melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions. The melanocytic iris tumors include freckle, nevus (including melanocytoma), Lisch nodule, and melanoma. Information from a tertiary referral center revealed that transformation of suspicious iris nevus to melanoma occurred in 4% by 10 years and 11% by 20 years. Risk factors for transformation of iris nevus to melanoma can be remembered using the ABCDEF guide as follows: A=age young (<40 years), B=blood (hyphema) in anterior chamber, C=clock hour of mass inferiorly, D=diffuse configuration, E=ectropion, F=feathery margins. The most powerful factors are diffuse growth pattern and hyphema. Tumor seeding into the anterior chamber angle and onto the iris stroma are also important. The nonmelanocytic iris tumors are relatively uncommon and included categories of choristomatous, vascular, fibrous, neural, myogenic, epithelial, xanthomatous, metastatic, lymphoid, leukemic, secondary, and non-neoplastic simulators. Overall, the most common diagnoses in a clinical series include nevus, IPE cyst, and melanoma. In summary, iris tumors comprise a wide spectrum including mostly iris nevus, IPE cyst, and iris melanoma. Risk factors estimating transformation of iris nevus to melanoma can be remembered by the ABCDEF guide.
  6,868 767 1
CLINICAL PRACTICE
External dacryocystorhinostomy: Tips and tricks
Mohammad Javed Ali, Milind N Naik, Santosh G Honavar
September-December 2012, 5(3):191-195
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.106106  PMID:23440476
Dacryocystorhinostomy or DCR is one of the most common oculoplastics surgery performed. It is a bypass procedure that creates an anastomosis between the lacrimal sac and the nasal mucosa via a bony ostium. It may be performed through an external skin incision or intranasally with or without endoscopic visualization. This article will discuss the indications, goals, and simple techniques for a successful outcome of an external DCR.
  6,662 613 4
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Accuracy of intraocular lens power calculation in high myopia
Asaad A Ghanem, Hosam M El-Sayed
September-December 2010, 3(3):126-130
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.71888  PMID:21120048
Purpose : To study the accuracy of different recent intraocular lens (IOL) calculation formulas in predicting a target postoperative refraction ± 1.0D (Diopters) in patients with long eyes (axial length ≥ 26.0 mm) undergoing phacoemulsification. Materials and Methods : This study comprised 127 eyes of 87 patients who presented with cataract and axial eye length ≥ 26 mm. Before phacoemulsification and IOL implantation; axial length measurement using immersion ultrasound A-scan technique, and autokeratometry with or without computerized corneal topography for K readings were done. The IOL power was calculated using four formulas, namely the SRK-T, Hoffer-Q, Holladay-2, and Haigis formulas. Four months after surgery, refraction was done. Differences between actual postoperative refraction and assumed target refraction using the different formulas were analyzed. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results : In all 127 eyes, the mean axial length was 31.71 mm (range, 26.06-37.11 mm) and the mean K was 44.68 D (range, 40.05-55.14D). The mean preoperative spherical equivalent (SE) was -17.52D (range, -12.25 to -30.50D). After surgery, the mean spherical equivalent was -0.8 ± 0.83D (range, +1.25 to -3.75D). The mean postoperative refractive SE when implanting a plus power IOLs was -0.3 ± 0.51D (P < 0.001) while the mean postoperative refractive SE when implanting a minus power IOLs was +1.21 ± 0.11D denoting a highly significant tendency toward hyperopia (P < 0.001). Concerning the minus power group, most postoperative refractive error was within +1.0 to +2.0D in the actual implanted IOL and in all other formula calculated IOL power. However, Haigis formula showed the least deviation while SRK-T and other formulas showed a greater tendency toward hyperopia. Conclusions : In eyes with high axial myopia, the performance of SRK-T, Hoffer-Q, Holladay-2 and Haigis formulas are comparable in low plus-powered IOL implantation. Haigis formula is the best formula when minus power IOL is implanted.
  5,775 915 5
REVIEW ARTICLES
Optic nerve hypoplasia
Savleen Kaur, Sparshi Jain, Harsimrat B. S. Sodhi, Anju Rastogi, Kamlesh
May-August 2013, 6(2):77-82
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.116622  PMID:24082663
Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is a congenital anomaly of the optic disc that might result in moderate to severe vision loss in children. With a vast number of cases now being reported, the rarity of ONH is obviously now refuted. The major aspects of ophthalmic evaluation of an infant with possible ONH are visual assessment, fundus examination, and visual electrophysiology. Characteristically, the disc is small, there is a peripapillary double-ring sign, vascular tortuosity, and thinning of the nerve fiber layer. A patient with ONH should be assessed for presence of neurologic, radiologic, and endocrine associations. There may be maternal associations like premature births, fetal alcohol syndrome, maternal diabetes. Systemic associations in the child include endocrine abnormalities, developmental delay, cerebral palsy, and seizures. Besides the hypoplastic optic nerve and chiasm, neuroimaging shows abnormalities in ventricles or white- or gray-matter development, septo-optic dysplasia, hydrocephalus, and corpus callosum abnormalities. There is a greater incidence of clinical neurologic abnormalities in patients with bilateral ONH (65%) than patients with unilateral ONH. We present a review on the available literature on the same to urge caution in our clinical practice when dealing with patients with ONH. Fundus photography, ocular coherence tomography, visual field testing, color vision evaluation, neuroimaging, endocrinology consultation with or without genetic testing are helpful in the diagnosis and management of ONH. (Method of search: MEDLINE, PUBMED).
  5,767 761 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding eye complications and care among Omani persons with diabetes - A cross sectional study
Rajiv Khandekar, Saleh Al Harby, Harith Al Harthy, Jawad Al Lawatti
May-August 2010, 3(2):60-65
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.64228  PMID:21217897
Purpose : We present the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) among diabetic patients regarding eye complications and their care. Materials and Methods : A cross sectional study was conducted in 2008 at seven regions of Oman. Arabic speaking nurses interviewed diabetics at clinics. They used a closed ended questionnaire with 15 questions. The responses were analyzed and the KAP were grouped into excellent (>80%), good (60 to 79%), average (40 to 59%), poor (20 to 39%) and very poor (<20%). They were also compared among epidemiologic variants. Result : Of the 750 participants, 'Excellent', grade of knowledge about diagnosis and eye care was present in 547 (72.9%) and 135 (18%) persons respectively. The 'excellent' grade of attitude about eye involvement and eye care was found in 135 (18%) and 224 (29.9%) participants. The practice for undergoing eye check up and accepting treatment was of 'excellent' grade in 390 (52%) and 594 (79.2%) respectively. Age (OR = 0.98), Sharqiya region (OR = 25) and '5 to 9' duration of DM (OR = 2.1) were associated with the knowledge. '<1 year' duration (OR = 0.3) and Dhakhiliya region (OR = 39) were associated with the attitude while '5 to 9 year' duration (OR = 3.4) was associated with better practices. Conclusions : Knowledge about eye complications and care is satisfactory among persons with diabetes. However, levels of attitude and practice were less than desired and should be improved. This could strengthen program approach for early detection and care of eye complications of diabetes in Oman.
  5,520 989 -
Epidemiological profile of fungal keratitis in urban population of West Bengal, India
Suman Saha, Debdulal Banerjee, Archana Khetan, Jayangshu Sengupta
September-December 2009, 2(3):114-118
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.57310  PMID:20927207
Background : Corneal diseases are one of the major causes of visual loss and blindness, second only to cataract. Amongst corneal diseases, microbial keratitis is a major blinding disease. In some countries, fungal keratitis accounts for almost 50% of patients with culture-proven microbial keratitis. Aim : This study was conducted to determine the epidemiological characteristics of fungal keratitis in an urban population of West Bengal and identify the specific pathogenic organisms. Methods : The charts of patients with microbial keratitis who attended the Cornea Services of Priyamvada Birla Aravind Eye Hospital from January to December 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Records of patients with 10% KOH mount and culture positive fungal keratitis were analyzed for epidemiological features, laboratory findings and treatment outcomes. Results : Of the 289 patients of microbial keratitis included in the study, 110 patients (38.06%) were diagnosed with fungal keratitis (10% KOH mount positive). Of the 110 patients, 74 (67.27%) fitted the study inclusion criteria (10% KOH mount and culture positive). Forty five of 74 patients (60.81%) in the study group were in the older age group (>50 years). Ocular trauma in 35 cases (47.29%) was identified as a high risk factor and vegetative injuries in 17 cases (22.97%) were identified as a significant cause for fungal keratitis. Maximum organism source was from corneal scrapings in 41 cases (55%). The predominant fungal species isolated was Aspergillus sp (55.40%) followed by Candida albicans 14 cases (18.91%) and Fusarium sp. in 8 cases (10.81%). Agricultural activity related ocular trauma was the principal cause of mycotic keratitis and males were more commonly affected. Thirty of 74 cases (40.55%) of the culture positive patients healed with corneal scar formation with medical treatment whereas 44 cases (59.45%) required therapeutic keratoplasty. Conclusion : Fungal keratitis is an important cause of microbial keratitis with injury to the cornea being a leading predisposing factor. Although Aspergillus sp. was implicated in most of the patients in our study population, Candida sp. were found in higher numbers than previously reported. Keratitis caused by filamentous fungi responds adequately to medical management. Therapeutic keratoplasty continues to remain an important treatment modality in infections with Candida sp. Early diagnosis with prompt identification of the pathogenic organism is mandatory to initiate appropriate therapy and thereby reduce morbidity.
  5,680 819 8
Eye and vision defects in under-five-year-old children in Oman: A public health intervention study
Rajiv Khandekar, Saleh Al Harby, Ali Jaffer Mohammed
January-April 2010, 3(1):13-17
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.60015  PMID:20606866
Purpose : To identify under-five-year-old children with vision or ocular defect in two provinces (Wilayats) of central Oman in 2006. Study Design : Public health intervention study. Materials and Methods : Ocular examination in Manah Wilayat was conducted by nursing staff of the primary health center (PHC) and in Mudhaiby Wilayat was conducted by a trainee Omani optometrist. Abnormal sized eyeball, strabismus, nystagmus and white pupil were recorded. Visual acuity was tested by LOGMAR chart with Lea's symbols in children >2 years of age and preferential viewing was assessed by Lea's grating paddle or 'Hiding Heidi' picture in children ≤2 years age. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Studies (SPSS 12). Result : Among 1,520 examined children, three children had absent eyeball bilaterally and three had unilaterally absent eyeball. Strabismus and nystagmus were detected in 44 (2.9%) and 18 (1.2%) children respectively. 'Hiding Heidi' test was normal in 530/537 (87%) of children. Distant vision reading was ≥0.32 in 386/448 (86.2%) eyes. Preferential looking test suggested that half of the children had defective vision (>2cpcm). Screening at '1-2 year' and '3-4 years' age group could significantly predict eye problems ( P≤0.001). Conclusion : Eye and vision screening of under-five kids helped in detection of eye problems in early stages. Instead of universal screening, high risk population or children of '3 to 4' years for vision and '1 to 2' years for ocular abnormalities is proposed The existing health services could not detect some children with eye problems and they were identified during such screening.
  5,817 582 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid
Upender K Wali, Abdullah Al-Mujaini
September-December 2010, 3(3):117-121
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.71885  PMID:21120046
Sebaceous gland carcinoma, commonly arises in the periocular area, is an uncommon condition. It represents 1-5.5% of eyelid malignancies and is considered to be the third most common eyelid malignancy after basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas, although few reports placed this tumor as second most common after basal cell carcinoma. It usually affects elderly women and characterized by high rate of local recurrence, regional, and distant metastases. A delay in diagnosis, which can be attributed primarily to ability of this tumor to masquerade as more benign conditions, often leads to inappropriate management with increased morbidity and mortality rates. In this study, the authors discuss key elements of the primary disease and therapeutic options available to treat such devastating problem.
  5,733 574 3
REVIEW ARTICLE
Ocular surface tumors
Ihab Saad Othman
January-April 2009, 2(1):3-14
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.48415  PMID:21234217
Tumors of the conjunctiva and cornea comprise a large and varied spectrum of conditions. These tumors are grouped into two major categories of congenital and acquired lesions. The acquired lesions are further subdivided based on origin of the mass into surface epithelial, mucoepidermoid, melanocytic, vascular, fibrous, neural, histiocytic, myxoid, myogenic, lipomatous, lymphoid, leukemic, metastatic and secondary tumors. Ocular surface tumors include a variety of neoplasms originating from squamous epithelium, melanocytic tumors and lymphocytic resident cells of the conjunctival stroma. In this review, we highlight clinical features of these lesions, important diagnostic and investigative tools and standard care of management.
  5,296 987 -
EDITORIAL COMMENTARY
Choroidal imaging: Looking ahead
Jay Chhablani, Vikas Khetan
September-December 2015, 8(3):139-140
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.169898  PMID:26903716
  784 5,044 -
CASE REPORTS
Varied aetiology of acute acquired comitant esotropia: A case series
Vasudha Kemmanu, Kaushik Hegde, Raghavendra Seetharam, Bhujanga K Shetty
May-August 2012, 5(2):103-105
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.99373  PMID:22993465
This is an observational case series of five cases of acute acquired comitant esotropia (AACE) with diplopia, aged between 5 and 12 years. The duration of presenting complaints ranged from 4 days to 2 months. A detailed ophthalmic evaluation and neuroimaging were done on all patients. Three patients were found to have intracranial pathology. Two patients had pontine glioma and one patient had benign intracranial hypertension. One patient was diagnosed as accommodative spasm and one patient was diagnosed as having Type 2 AACE. We would like to conclude that AACE can be of a varied aetiology ranging from convergence spasm to those harboring serious intracranial diseases. We reiterate that AACE has a small but significant association with intracranial disorders. Neuroimaging is a definite need in cases which cannot be proved to be either Type 1 or 2.
  5,361 450 1
EDITORIAL
An eye for an eye
Santosh G Honavar, Raju Kumar
September-December 2014, 7(3):109-111
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.142590  PMID:25378872
  1,502 4,149 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Kajal (Kohl) - A dangerous cosmetic
Anup Mohta
May-August 2010, 3(2):100-101
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.64242  PMID:21217909
  5,101 489 -
CLINICAL IMAGES
Congenital sixth nerve palsy or Type I Duane syndrome?
Siddharth Agrawal, Vinita Singh, Saurabh Agrawal
May-August 2011, 4(2):92-94
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.83663  PMID:21897628
  5,240 333 -
CASE REPORTS
Refractory reverse amblyopia with atropine penalization
Preeti Ajit Patil, S Meenakshi, TS Surendran
September-December 2010, 3(3):148-149
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.71897  PMID:21120053
Pharmacological penalization with atropine has been shown to be equally effective as conventional occlusion therapy in the treatment of amblyopia in children. Reverse amblyopia of the sound eye with atropine penalization has been reported before, but is more common in cases where the effect is augmented with optical penalization and is mostly reversible. We report a case of reverse amblyopia with atropine penalization, in a 4-year-old girl, which was refractory to treatment. This report highlights the need for strict monitoring of the vision in the sound eye and regular follow-up in children undergoing amblyopia treatment.
  5,086 426 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
Gene therapy in glaucoma-part 2: Genetic etiology and gene mapping
Mohamed Abdel-Monem Soliman Mahdy
May-August 2010, 3(2):51-59
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.64227  PMID:21217896
Glaucoma diagnosis, identification of people at risk, initiation of treatment and timing of surgical intervention remains a problem. Despite new and improving diagnostic and therapeutic options for glaucoma, blindness from glaucoma is increasing and glaucoma remains a major public health problem. The role of heredity in ocular disease is attracting greater attention as the knowledge and recent advances of Human Genome Project and the HapMap Project have made genetic analysis of many human disorders possible. Glaucoma offers a variety of potential targets for gene therapy. All risk factors for glaucoma and their underlying causes are potentially susceptible to modulation by gene transfer. The discovery of genes responsible for glaucoma has led to the development of new methods of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based diagnosis and treatment. As genetic defects responsible for glaucoma are identified and the biochemical mechanisms underlying the disease are recognized, new methods of therapy can be developed. It is of utmost importance for the ophthalmologists and glaucoma specialists to be familiar with and understand the basic molecular mechanisms, genes responsible for glaucoma and the ways of genetic treatment. Method of Literature Search The literature was searched on the Medline database, using the PubMed interface.
  4,527 855 -
CLINICAL IMAGES
Congenital bilateral ectropion in lamellar ichthyosis
Chandana Chakraborti, Partha Tripathi, Gautam Bandopadhyay, Dayal Bandhu Mazumder
January-April 2011, 4(1):35-36
DOI:10.4103/0974-620X.77662  PMID:21713241
  4,949 431 1
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