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SELECTED ABSTRACTS
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 104-106 Table of Contents   

Selected Abstracts


Date of Web Publication30-Jun-2009

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How to cite this article:
. Selected Abstracts. Oman J Ophthalmol 2009;2:104-6

How to cite this URL:
. Selected Abstracts. Oman J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2009 [cited 2019 Sep 16];2:104-6. Available from: http://www.ojoonline.org/text.asp?2009/2/2/104/53047

Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009 May-Jun;19(3):369-75.

Corneal endothelium in patients with diabetes mellitus: A historical cohort study

Shenoy R, Khandekar R, Bialasiewicz A, Al Muniri A.

Department of Ophthalmology, SQU Hospital, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Al Khoud, E-mail: Oman.shenoyvs@omantel.net.om

Purpose: Retinopathy is the major cause of ocular morbidity in patients with diabetes mellitus. Chronic hyperglycemia spares no organ and can affect the morphology and function of the various corneal layers, compromising its transparency. This study was conducted to associate the status of corneal endothelium to diabetes mellitus (DM) and identify risk factors of compromised corneal endothelium. Materials and Methods: A total of 220 eyes of randomly selected patients (110 diabetic and 110 nondiabetic) were subjected to detailed slitlamp and fundus evaluation. Corneal endothelial status was evaluated using the Nidek Confoscan 2. Cell density, percentage polymegathism, and pleomorphism were calculated. The findings in diabetic patients were compared to those without disease. The outcome was correlated to diabetic retinopathy (DR). The effects of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, age, gender, type, duration, glycemic control, and grades of DR was also considered. Results: The mean corneal endothelial cell density was -175 cells/mm 2 (95% CI -317 to -33 cells/mm 2 ) less in eyes of diabetic patients. The number of endothelial cells with polymegathism was significantly greater among eyes of diabetic patients. There were less corneal endothelial cells with pleomorphism in nondiabetic patients. Polymegathism and pleomorphism of corneal endothelial cells seems to be positively associated with DM type II. Cell density was significantly lower in eyes with DR than those without DR. Conclusions: Corneal endothelium in diabetic patients seems to be compromised. Evaluation of corneal endothelium should be part of protocol for eye care of diabetic patients.

J AAPOS. 2009 Apr;13(2):207-9.

Lymphocytic infundibulo-neurohypophysitis: An unusual cause of recurrent optic neuropathy in a child

Al-Mujaini A, Ganesh A, Al-Zuhaibi S, Al-Dhuhli H, Al-Mashani A, Al-Kindi H, Al-Memari A, Al-Futaisi A, Al-Asmi A

Department of Ophthalmology, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

Lymphocytic infundibulo-neurohypophysitis (LINH), a rare autoimmune disease, is distinct from lymphocytic hypophysitis and is characterized by lymphocytic and plasma cell infiltration of the posterior lobe of the pituitary and the pituitary stalk.(1) We report the case of a young boy who presented with recurrent, steroid-responsive optic nerve dysfunction and diabetes insipidus. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain showed an isointense soft tissue mass within the sella turcica and a thickened pituitary stalk. Tissue specimen resected at transsphenoidal surgery revealed chronic inflammation with infiltration of lymphocytes and no granulomatosis or necrosis, establishing the diagnosis of LINH.(2) This is the first report of optic neuropathy in association with LINH in a child.

Indian J Ophthalmol. 2009 May-Jun;57(3):228-9.

Visual function and ocular status of children with hearing impairment in Oman: A case series

Khandekar R, Al Fahdi M, Al Jabri B, Al Harby S, Abdulmageed T.

Eye and Ear Health Care, Department of Non-communicable Diseases Control, Directorate General of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, E-mail: Oman.rajshpp@omantel.net.om.

Visual functions of children with hearing disability were evaluated in a school of Muscat, Oman in 2006. Two hundred and twenty-three children were tested for near vision, distant vision, contrast sensitivity, color vision, field of vision, motion perception and crowding. Profound and severe hearing loss was noted in 161 and 63 students respectively. Thirty-five (81%) students with refractive error were using spectacles. Color vision and field of vision was defective in one student each. In 286 (64.1%) eyes, contrast sensitivity was defective. Abnormal contrast sensitivity was not associated with the severity of hearing loss [RR = 1.04 (95% CI 0.91 to 1.29)]. Children with hearing impairment should be assessed for visual functions. Refractive error and defect in contrast sensitivity were unusually high among these children. In addition to visual aids, we recommend environmental changes to improve illumination and contrast to improve the quality of life of such children with double disability.

Ophthalmic Res. 2009;41(3):175-9. Epub 2009 Apr 9.

In vivo morphometry of corneal endothelial cells in pseudoexfoliation keratopathy with glaucoma and cataract

Wali UK, Bialasiewicz AA, Rizvi SG, Al-Belushi H

Department of Ophthalmology and School of Ophthalmic Technicians, Sultan Qaboos University College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Muscat, Oman.

Background: This study was designed to define correlations between in vivo morphometric and demographic data of pseudoexfoliation (PEX) keratopathy patients from Omani Arab origin with cataract and glaucoma. Materials and Methods: In a non-randomized controlled comparative case series, 69 adult patients (43 males and 26 females) with 78 cataract and 48 glaucoma eyes with corneal PEX material were assessed by confocal biomicroscopy (Confoscan 2, Nidek) and values compared to normative US and Omani Arab population values. Descriptive statistics. Results: The mean age of glaucoma patients was 60.81 8.33 years, of cataract patients 64.65 6.67 years; 109/126 eyes (74%) were from patients >60 years old (14 glaucoma and 95 cataract eyes). Age-adjusted endothelial cell counts were similar to normative values in 108/126 eyes (85.7%). Polymegathism and pleomorphism were abnormal in 124/126 (98.4%) and 122/126 eyes (96.8%), respectively. The correlation of pleomorphism and polymegathism with males (R(2) = 0.6378, P = 0.05) was stronger than with females (R(2) = 0.6024, P = 0.06), and stronger for patients <60 years (R(2) = 0.7268, P = 0.01) than >60 years old (R(2) = 0.5805, P = 0.01). Cataracts: Endothelial cell counts were normal (mean 2,483 511.2). Pleomorphism was 33.12 11.44% and different from Omani Arab controls (P < 0.01), polymegathism 58.14 16.58% (P<0.01). Glaucomas: Endothelial cell counts were normal (mean: 2,438 503). Pleomorphism and polymegathism were 37.09 12.43% (P < 0.01) and 59.69 16.79% (P < 0.01), respectively. Pleomorphism and polymegathism were more associated with glaucomas (R(2) = 0.7652, P = 0.02) than with cataracts (R(2) = 0.6041, P = 0.06). Conclusions: Endothelial cell polymegathism and pleomorphism in PEX keratopathy with glaucoma is more frequently associated with age <60 years and male gender than with cataract. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Saudi Med J. 2009 Feb;30(2):302-3. Links

Exudative retinal detachment in eclampsia: A management dilemma

Mohan AK, Al-Senawi RN, Mathew M, Ganesh A, Al-Mujaini A

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, E-mail: Oman. dr_anita_mohan@hotmail.com

Abstract: Hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is a major contributor to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. It tends to involve multiple organs, including the eye. We report the occurrence of bilateral exudative retinal detachment in a primigravida with eclampsia and the ensuing dilemma of whether a vaginal delivery can be allowed.

Keywords: Eclampsia, retinal detachment, pregnancy, management

Can J Ophthalmol. 2009 Feb;44(1):101

Orbital wall infarction versus infection in sickle cell disease

Al-Mujaini A, Ganesh A, William R, Azri FA

Department of Ophthalmology, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

We have recently reported the clinical features and genetic and hematological factors predisposing to orbital infarction in 14 patients with sickle cell disease. A major problem in these patients is reliably distinguishing infection from infarction. Although both orbital infarction and orbital cellulitis present with pain, swelling, proptosis, and restricted motility, in our experience, patients with orbital infarction do not display the marked periorbital erythema, tenderness, and systemic toxicity (high-grade fever, fever with constitutional upset) that is seen in patients with orbital cellulitis. Because sickle cell patients are predisposed to infections and it is often difficult to rule out the presence of infection conclusively because of considerable overlap between changes seen in infection and infarction, use of intravenous antibiotics is advisable in all patients with sickle cell disease who present with acute periorbital or orbital swelling.

SQUMJ April 2009 - Vol. 9, No. 1, p.64-67

Fungal Corneal Ulcers in the South Sharqiyah Region in Oman

Thara Idiculla, George Zachariah, BR Keshav and Somansu Basu

Department of Ophthalmology, Sur Regional Hospital, Sultanate of Oman.

Objectives: To study the incidence, identify the risk factors and determine the predominant microorganisms and treatment regimen of fungal corneal ulcers. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of corneal ulcers treated in the Ophthalmology Department of Sur Hospital, Oman, undertaken from January 2004 to December 2007. Medical and microbiology records of thirty two culture proven cases of fungal keratitis were reviewed for risk factors, laboratory findings and response to treatment. Results: Out of the total 242 corneal ulcers, 13.22% were fungal. Among the 102 culture positive cases, 31.38 % were fungal isolates. Fusarium spp (50%) and Aspergillus spp (34.4%) predominated in the hyaline fungal spectrum. The important risk factors were topical steroid usage in 31.25% of cases and ocular injury in 25%. The majority of cases (90.62%) responded to 2% ketoconazole alone or in combination with 0.15% amphotericin B. Conclusion: Fungal ulcer remains one of the leading causes of visual disability. Indiscriminate use of topical steroids and ocular trauma are the most important risk factors. Filamentous fungi are common aetiological agents in this region. Topical ketoconazole and amphotericin B were very effective for most of the cases.

Key words: Corneal ulcer, Keratitis, Fungi, Culture media.

Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 2009;16:9-14

Subjective and quantitative measurement of wavefront aberrations in nuclear cataracts: A retrospective case controlled study

Wali UK, Bialasiewicz AA, Al-Kharousi N, Rizvi SG, Baloushi H

Department of Ophthalmology, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

Purpose: To measure, quantify and compare Ocular Aberrations due to nuclear cataracts. Setting: Department of ophthalmology and school for ophthalmic technicians, college of medicine and health sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman. Design: Retrospective case controlled study. Materials and Methods: 113 eyes of 77 patients with nuclear cataract (NC) were recruited from outpatient clinic of a major tertiary referral center for Ophthalmology. Patients having NC with no co-existing ocular pathologies were selected. All patients were subjected to wavefront aberrometry (make) using Hartmann-Shack (HS) aberrometer. Consents were taken from all patients. Higher order Aberrations (HOA) were calculated with Zernike polynomials up to the fourth order. For comparison 28 eyes of 15 subjects with no lenticular opacities (control group) were recruited and evaluated in an identical manner. No pupillary mydriasis was done in both groups. Results: Total aberrations were almost six times higher in NC group compared to control (normal) subjects. The HOA were 21 times higher in NC group, and coma was significantly higher in NC eyes compared to normal (control) group. The pupillary diameter was significantly larger in control group (5.48mm 1.0024, P<0.001) compared to NC (3.05mm 1.9145) subjects (probably due to younger control age group). Amongst Zernike coefficients up to fourth order, two polynomials, defocus (Z2 0) and spherical aberration (Z4 2) were found to be significantly greater amongst NC group, compared to normal control group. Conclusion: Nuclear cataracts predominantly produce increased defocus and spherical aberrations. This could explain visual symptoms like image deterioration in spite of normal Visual acuity.




 

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